November 30, 2021

In 1991 the Second Gulf War, the wars in the former Yugoslavia and the final dissolution of the Soviet Union determined world affairs. After the August coup in Moscow, numerous Union republics declared their independence (list here). Since then there have been numerous post-Soviet states; the largest of them is Russia.

Annual dedications

The partridge (Perdix perdix) is bird of the year (NABU / Germany) The summer linden (Tilia platyphyllos) is tree of the year (Kuratorium Baum des Jahres / Germany) The orchid (Orchis morio) is Orchid of the Year (Arbeitsgruppe Heimische Orchideen / Germany)


Politics and world affairs


January 1: Flavio Cotti becomes President of Switzerland. January 1: The accession area adopts West German tax law. January 1st: The Electricity Feed Act for Renewable Energies (StrEG) comes into force and decisively promotes the generation of electricity through regenerative energies in Germany. January 2: Israel reopened a consulate in Moscow after a long break. January 12: President Arnold Rüütel (Estonia) and President Boris Jelzin (Russia) sign a basic treaty between the two countries in Moscow. January 13: 14 unarmed and peaceful Lithuanians are murdered and over 1,000 injured in the storm of the Lithuanian television tower in Vilnius (January events in Lithuania 1991). January 13: Mário Soares is re-elected in the presidential elections in Portugal. January 13: As a result of the so-called dream ship affair, the Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg Lothar Späth (CDU) resigns. His successor is Erwin Teufel (also CDU). January 16: Air strikes on Iraq begin January 17th: The military liberation of Kuwait begins January 17: Helmut Kohl is re-elected as Federal Chancellor by the first all-German Bundestag. January 17th: King Harald V becomes head of state in Norway. January 20th: First free and democratic elections in São Tomé and Príncipe January 20: Five people died when Soviet special forces attacked the building of the Interior Ministry in Riga, which was defended by Latvian militias, but withdrew after four hours.


February 1: In the Second Gulf War, Iraqi troops are forced to withdraw from Saudi territory following the victory of Saudi Arabia's armed forces after the Battle of Khafji. February 3: The Italian Communist Party changes its name to Partito Democratico della Sinistra (PDS). On December 12th, loyal communists split off from her as Partito della Rifondazione Comunista. February 6: Iraq breaks diplomatic relations with the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, Egypt and Saudi Arabia because of "unjust military aggression". February 9: The Timor Gap Treaty, negotiated between Indonesia and Australia on December 11, 1989, comes into effect. There are large deposits of oil and natural gas in the Timor Trench. Years later, East Timor will insist on compliance with the treaty. February 15: Visegrád Agreement for closer cooperation between Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. In doing so, they establish the East Central European counterpart to the Benelux February 23: In Thailand, a group of officers led by Generals Sunthorn Kongsompong and Suchinda Kraprayoon overthrew the elected government of Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan in a bloodless coup. February 28: Armistice with Iraq after the Second Gulf War


March 3: Almost 78% of Estonian citizens are in favor of restoring independence March 3: Latvia. Referendum on independence from the Soviet Union March 3: Miguel Trovoada becomes President of São Tomé and Príncipes after winning the election March 5: Kurdish Peshmerga liberate the city of Ranya from Iraqi troops March 7: K

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