23. June


July 5, 2022

June 23 is the 174th day of the Gregorian calendar (175th in leap years), so there are 191 days left until the end of the year.


Politics and World Events

0229: Chinese warlord Sun Quan, Duke of Wu proclaims himself Emperor of the Wu Dynasty. 1101: Lombard Crusaders capture Ankara during the Crusade of 1101. 1180: The First Battle of Uji begins the Gempei War in Japan, with two samurai families fighting for power in the state. 1197: Vladislav Heinrich is elected Duke of Bohemia. However, he abdicated a little later in favor of his brother Otakar I in order not to let the Přemyslid family dispute escalate. 1305: In the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge, the county of Flanders becomes independent as a French fief, but has to cede the cities of Lille, Douai and Béthune to the French crown and pay an annual indemnity. 1314: At the Battle of Bannockburn, Robert the Bruce wins a decisive victory over an English army under Edward II, securing Scottish independence. 1372: The two-day naval battle of La Rochelle in the Hundred Years' War ends with the Franco-Castilian fleet defeating the English. 1524: During the German Peasants' War, the first farmers' uprising took place in the Wutach valley near Stühlingen. 1565: During the siege of Malta, the Ottomans succeed in conquering Fort St. Elmo according to the plans of the corsair Turgut Reis, who dies in the attack. 1585: The Eighty Years' War saw the battle of Amerongen in the province of Utrecht. Count Adolf von Neuenahr and his troop of Dutch and German mercenaries fail to stop the marauding Spanish units. 1606: The Peace of Vienna ended an uprising in Upper Hungary that had been directed against the Habsburgs for several months. Archduke Matthias of Austria recognizes the leader Stephan Bocskai as prince of Transylvania and grants freedom of religion to Calvinists and Lutherans in Upper Hungary. 1611: English navigator Henry Hudson is abandoned in an open boat after a mutiny with his son and seven loyal crew members. The further fate of the abandoned is unknown. 1656: In the Treaty of Marienburg, Sweden's King Karl X Gustav secures Brandenburg-Prussia as an ally in the Second Northern War. 1757: At the Battle of Plassey, a mercenary force from the British East India Company led by Robert Clive defeats the force of Siraj-ud-Daula, the last independent Nawab of Bengal. The battle is considered the beginning of British rule in India. 1758: At the Battle of Krefeld during the Seven Years' War, the Prussians under Prince Ferdinand defeat a superior French army led by the Count of Clermont. 1760: In the Seven Years' War, the Austrian army defeats the Prussian army in the Battle of Landeshut. The Prussian general Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué is the most prominent prisoner. 1865: The Civil War ends with the surrender of the last Confederate troops in Texas. 1914: During the Mexican Revolution, an insurgent army led by Pancho Villa defeats President Victoriano Huerta's government troops at the Battle of Zacatecas. After the victory, however, new strife breaks out between the different factions of the revolutionary camp, which triggers further fighting. 1915: The First Battle of the Isonzo during World War I begins. 1916: In the Battle of Verdun, German troops storm the Thiaumont intermediate works. 1919: Latvian and Estonian troops succeed in stopping the advance of the Baltic State Army in the Estonian War of Independence at Cēsis. 1920: With the abolition of aristocratic privileges in Prussia, aristocratic titles in Germany are now only no