November 30, 2021
November 24th is the 328th day of the Gregorian calendar (the 329th in leap years), leaving 37 days until the end of the year.
Politics and world affairs
1411: During the Appenzell Wars, the Appenzell people conclude a protection treaty with the eight old towns of the Old Confederation, in which they have limited rights in the Confederation as a place that has been assigned.
1562: Maximilian II is elected Roman-German king in Frankfurt am Main.
1631: The Dutch occupy Olinda, the capital of Pernambuco, and set the city on fire. They prefer to invest their capital in nearby Recife.
1642: Abel Tasman is the first European to discover the island of Van Diemen’s Land, which is later renamed Tasmania after its discoverer.
1643: Bavarian and imperial troops raid the winter quarters of the French armed forces under Josias Rantzau during the Thirty Years' War. The battle of Tuttlingen sees the opposing military leaders Franz von Mercy, Melchior von Hatzfeldt, Johann von Werth and Duke Karl IV of Lorraine as the victor.
1700: The Bourbone Philip of Anjou is proclaimed King of Spain as Philip V. His grandfather, France's King Louis XIV, thus triggers the War of the Spanish Succession.
1758: Because of their desperate situation, the French leave the British-besieged Fort Duquesne, set it on fire and save themselves across the Ohio River. This marks a turning point in the French and Indian War.
1793: In France, the revolutionary calendar comes into effect retrospectively from September 22, 1792, the day the monarchy was abolished. Today's date is thus the 4th Frimaire II.
1832: The parliament of South Carolina passes the repeal of the federal tariff laws of 1828 and 1832 in its state territory on February 1 of the following year, thus triggering the nullification crisis.
1835: The Texas government transforms the Texas Rangers, founded by Stephen F. Austin in 1823, into a regular state organization and subordinates them to the Texas Army.
1847: One day after the decisive defeat at Gisikon and Meierskappel in the Sonderbund War, the Catholic canton of Lucerne surrendered as the first member of the Sonderbund in Switzerland.
1848: Revolutionary republican activities in Rome lead to Pope Pius IX. leaves the city and flees to Gaeta.
1879: William Ewart Gladstone begins his groundbreaking Midlothian campaign in which he sharply attacks the policies of his conservative opponent Benjamin Disraeli.
1899: With the defeat of the Mahdists in the Battle of Umm Diwaykarat, the Mahdi uprising is finally put down. The British winners under Horatio Herbert Kitchener are not giving Sudan back to Egypt, but are founding the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan condominium.
1933: The first German animal protection law is passed.
1933: The Customs Criminal Law passed by the National Socialists provides for more severe penalties and the compulsory order of preventive detention for dangerous perpetrators. It comes into force at the turn of the year.
1940: Slovakia joins the Axis Three-Power Pact in World War II.
1943: The Battle of the Gilbert Islands in the Pacific War ends with the complete capture of the islands by the Allies.
1944: The United States begins the third phase of a series of heavy air raids on Tokyo during World War II to break the will of the Japanese people to go to war.
1946: In Württemberg-Baden a referendum is held on the state constitution and elections for the first state parliament, in which the CDU becomes the strongest party.
1954: Theodor Blank, Konrad Adenauer's agent for rearmament, is shouted down by protesters in Augsburg.
1955: Walter Ulbricht becomes the first deputy chairman of the GDR Council of Ministers.
1963: The night club