6. August


August 19, 2022

August 6 is the 218th day of the Gregorian calendar (the 219th in leap years), leaving 147 days until the end of the year.


Politics and World Events

1223: Louis VIII and Blanca of Castile are crowned and anointed as the French royal couple in Reims Cathedral. 1284: The naval battle at Meloria between the "sea republics" of Genoa and Pisa turned into the largest maritime conflict in the Middle Ages. The Genoese win and become a strong naval power in the Mediterranean for decades. 1538: Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada refounds the city of Bogotá on the site of the Chibcha city of Bacatá ('high field') under the name of Santa Fe. 1566: The Ottomans under Süleyman I begin the siege of Szigetvár in Hungary. 1605: The expansion of the Persians under Abbas I leads to a victory over the Ottomans at Tabriz. 1623: Thirty Years' War: near Stadtlohn, Duke Christian von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, who had invaded Westphalia with mercenaries from the Netherlands, was defeated by the army of the Catholic League under General Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly. For this victory, Emperor Ferdinand II elevated Tilly to the rank of count. 1628: The mayor of Bamberg, Johannes Junius, is burned at the stake under torture after confessing as a witch. 1644: With the Battle of Freiburg im Breisgau, three days of fighting ended in an encounter that was one of the most costly battles in the Thirty Years' War. The Bavarian troops under Franz von Mercy and the French army under Marshal Condé split indecisively. 1648: The Fronde revolt begins in France to secure the release of previously arrested judges critical of the government. 1661: In the Treaty of The Hague, Portugal and the Netherlands end their dispute over the return of Dutch Brazil. This possession remains with the Portuguese against payment of 63 tons of gold and surrender of their possessions in Ceylon and India. 1777: At the Battle of Oriskany during the Saratoga Campaign of the American Revolutionary War, a British expeditionary force destroys an American militia unit. 1793: During the French Revolution, the looting of the royal tombs of Saint-Denis in the Saint-Denis Cathedral in Paris begins. In a measure lasting several weeks, the corpses are taken out of the coffins and buried in a mass grave. 1806: Francis II resigns the title of Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and at the same time declares the empire defunct to rule out a possible election of Napoleon as his successor. The empire thus ceases to exist after 844 years. 1813: Simón Bolívar conquers the city of Caracas from the Spanish during the Venezuelan wars of independence and proclaims the Second Venezuelan Republic, which is short-lived. 1819: The Karlsbad Conference to combat liberal and nationalist tendencies in Germany begins in Karlsbad. 1824: Simón Bolívar and Antonio José de Sucre defeated superior Spanish forces at the Battle of Junín. 1825: After the expulsion of the Spaniards, the province of Alto Perú (Upper Peru) declares itself independent under the name of Bolivia. Revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar becomes the first president. 1838: Chile breaks the Paucarpata peace treaty with Peru and opens new fighting in the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation War. His troops land in the city of Ancón, the Chilean fleet blocks the port of Callao. 1849: In the Peace Treaty of Milan between Austria and Sardinia-Piedmont, Austria regains control of Lombardy-Venetia. 1861: Lagos is annexed by Great Britain and becomes a British Crown Colony. 1870: Prussia defeats France at the Battle of Wörth in the Franco-Prussian War. At the slap