August 19, 2022

Berlin [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] is the capital and a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. With around 3.7 million inhabitants, the city is the most populous and, at 892 square kilometers, the largest municipality in Germany and the most populous city in the European Union. With 4123 inhabitants per square kilometer, the city has the third highest population density in Germany. Almost 4.7 million people live in the Berlin agglomeration, and around 6.2 million in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region. The city-state consists of twelve districts. In addition to the rivers Spree, Havel and Dahme, there are smaller watercourses in the city area as well as numerous lakes and forests. In 1237 and 1244, the neighboring towns of Alt-Kölln and Alt-Berlin were first mentioned in what is now the historic center. The double city was founded as a trading center and rose to become an important economic center in the Middle Ages. In its almost 800-year history, Berlin has functioned as the capital of the Mark Brandenburg, Prussia and Germany. After the end of World War II, the city was subject to four-power status in 1945; East Berlin served as the capital of the socialist German Democratic Republic from 1949, while West Berlin was closely linked to the free, democratic Federal Republic. With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and German reunification in 1990, the two halves of the city grew together again and Berlin regained its role as the all-German capital. Since 1999, the city has been the seat of the Federal Government, the Federal President, the German Bundestag, the Bundesrat and most federal ministries, numerous federal authorities and embassies. The most important branches of Berlin's economy include tourism, the creative and cultural industries, biotechnology and healthcare with medical technology and the pharmaceutical industry, information and communication technologies, the construction and real estate industries, trade, optoelectronics, energy technology and trade fairs - and congress economy. The city is a European transport hub for road, rail and air transport. Berlin is one of the up-and-coming, international centers for innovative company founders and start-up companies. Berlin records high annual growth rates in the number of people in work. Berlin is considered a cosmopolitan city of culture, politics, media and science. The local universities and research institutes, local sport and museums enjoy an international reputation. The metropolis has the UNESCO title City of Design and is one of the most visited centers on the continent. Architecture, festivities and nightlife are known worldwide.



Berlin's prominent reference point, the Red City Hall, is geographically located: 52°31'7" north latitude, 13°24'30" east longitude, the center of gravity of the city is about two kilometers south of it in Kreuzberg (52° 30'10, 4"N, 13°24'15.1"E). The greatest expansion of the urban area in the east-west direction is around 45 kilometers, in the north-south direction around 38 kilometers. The area of ​​Berlin is almost 892 km². The city is located in the northeast of the Federal Republic of Germany and is completely surrounded by the state of Brandenburg. The historic center is located at the narrowest and thus most accessible point of the Warsaw-Berlin glacial valley, which crosses Berlin from the south-east to the north-west and is traversed by the Spree in an east-west direction. The north-eastern part of Berlin lies on the Barnim plateau, almost half of the city area in the south-west lies on the Teltow plateau. The westernmost district, Spandau, is divided into the Berlin glacial valley, the Brandenburg-Potsdam Havel area and the Zehdenick-Spandau Havel lowlands. the la