January 19, 2022
Elizabeth II (English Elizabeth II; born April 21, 1926 as Elizabeth Alexandra Mary in Mayfair, London) of the House of Windsor has been Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland since 1952 (69 years and 347 days) and in personal union of 14 others, sovereign states designated as Commonwealth Realms, including their territories and dependent areas, namely: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, Canada, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St .Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. In addition, she is the head of the 53-state Commonwealth of Nations, liege lady of the British Crown Dependencies and secular head of the Anglican Church of England, the state church of England. From 1956 to 1992, the number of Commonwealth realms varied as various British colonies gained independence and several states declared themselves republics. Only in the United Kingdom does the Queen personally exercise her almost exclusively representative rights and duties. In the remaining Commonwealth realms it is represented by governors-general. By virtue of centuries-old customary law, she acts as a de facto constitutional, parliamentary monarch. Elizabeth II was born after her uncle Edward VIII and her father George VI. third in line to the British throne. Her father ascended the throne in 1936, after his older brother's abdication. As a heiress presumptive (probable heir to the throne), Elizabeth took on public duties for the first time during the Second World War and served in the women's section of the British Army. On November 20, 1947 she married Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, the Duke of Edinburgh, with whom she has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew and Edward. Prince Philip died after 73 years and 140 days of marriage on April 9, 2021 at the age of 99 years and 303 days. After the death of her father, Elizabeth II ascended the throne on February 6, 1952. Her coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953 and was the first to be televised. She has held the throne longer than any British monarch before her and is currently the longest-serving head of state in the world. Significant political processes during her rule were the decolonization of the British Empire, the Cold War, the Northern Ireland conflict and Brexit. Despite increasing criticism of the royal family from the mass media and growing support for the republican form of government – especially in Australia – the population's loyalty to the monarchy under Queen Elizabeth II remained intact.