Kingdom of Prussia refers to the Prussian state at the time of the rule of the Prussian kings between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Prussia emerged from the Brandenburg-Prussian areas after Elector Friedrich III. of Brandenburg had been crowned king in Prussia. It consisted of Brandenburg, which belonged to the Holy Roman Empire, and the eponymous Duchy of Prussia, which emerged as a Polish fief from the Teutonic Order. The originally Prussian territories in the east of the kingdom were henceforth called East Prussia. In the 18th century Prussia rose to one of the five major European powers and became the second German great power after Austria. Since the middle of the 19th century, it played a decisive role in the creation of a German nation-state, and from 1867 onwards it was the dominant member state of the North German Confederation. In 1871 this union was expanded to form the German Empire and the King of Prussia took over the office of German Emperor. With the abdication of the last emperor and king, Wilhelm II., As a result of the November Revolution in 1918, the monarchy was abolished. The kingdom went up in the newly created Free State of Prussia.
The history of the Kingdom of Prussia and its Prussian states comprises two distinctive periods: the first half from 1701 to 1806, known as the period of the Old Prussian Monarchy, and the "New Prussian Monarchy" from 1807 to 1918. The years from 1806 to 1809 led to renewal of all state institutions in a changed state territory, old Prussian lines of tradition and structures were dropped and a new era began. In the course of the Prussian reforms, the "New Prussian State" came into being.
Raised rank under King Friedrich I (1701–1713)
The new Prussian state
The countries of the Hohenzollern dynasty with their dominant focus in the Mark Brandenburg were a middle power by European standards in 1700. As Electors of Brandenburg, the Hohenzollern had held a prominent position as an imperial estate in the Holy Roman Empire since the 15th century. The empire was able to consolidate again after 1648, but the political position of the imperial princes was considerably strengthened with the Peace of Westphalia. With their location in the northeast of the empire, the ties between the Hohenzollern areas and the Kaiser were looser than in the central areas on the Rhine and in southern Germany. In previous centuries, the Brandenburg electors, in the course of the effects of the Reformation and religious wars, in the struggle between the Unitarian imperial power and the polycentric prince power in the empire, also together with the Saxon electors, had at times formed a regional antithesis to the imperial power.
The rank, reputation and prestige of a prince were important political factors around 1700. Elector Friedrich III, recognizing the signs of the times, strove for the title of king. Above all, he was looking for equality of rank with the Elector of Saxony, who was also King of Poland, and with the Elector of Hanover, who was a candidate for the English throne. With the consent of Emperor Leopold I, he finally crowned himself on January 18, 1701 as Friedrich I in Königsberg as "King in Prussia". In return, the Royal Prussian Army took part in the War of the Spanish Succession against France on the side of the Emperor. During the Great Northern War, which broke out at the same time on the northeastern border, Friedrich managed to keep his country free from the clashes.
The restrictive "in Prussia" was retained because the designation "King of Prussia" meant a claim to rule over all of Prussia, including the western part of the Teutonic Order state, which has belonged to Poland since 1466