Kingdom of Tunning
The Kingdom of Tungning (Dongning) (Chinese: 東寧王國 / 东宁王国, pinyin Dōngníng Wángguó) or Kingdom of Formosa was a feudal state in southwestern Taiwan that existed between 1661 and 1683 with its capital at Dongdu (Tungtu) (now Tainan).
Tungning Kingdom was founded by Zheng Chenggong called Koxinga, a follower of the Southern Ming, after the Ming Dynasty was overthrown by the Qing Dynasty of China. The goal was to establish a base for restoring the Ming Dynasty on the mainland. Koxinga initially crossed over to the Penghu Islands off Taiwan with 400 ships and 25,000 men, thereby creating a base for the conquest of what was then Dutch Formosa (Taiwan). In 1661 he landed on Taiwan, captured Fort Provintia and besieged Fort Zeelandia. He negotiated a treaty with the Dutch governor Frederick Coyett that provided for the surrender of the fort and the surrender of all goods belonging to the Dutch East India Company. In return, Koxinga granted the Dutch free evacuation to Batavia (Dutch East Indies, now Jakarta, Indonesia) with their personal belongings. This ended 38 years of Dutch colonial rule in Taiwan. Koxinga founded the kingdom of Tungning in his dominion, rose to become its first king, and established a Ming-style administration.
After Koxinga's early death from malaria in 1662, his son Zheng Jing took over the reigns. This attempted a rapprochement and reconciliation with the Qing. He undertook a trip to Beijing to achieve autonomous state status for Tungning / Taiwan. This project failed because of the demands of the Qing government. In response to Tungning fleet raids on Chinese coastal cities, Beijing decreed the blockade of Taiwan and Zheng Jing's support to hostile forces on the island. Triggered by a famine in China and the persecution of the Ming followers, there were several waves of immigration from the mainland Chinese to Taiwan between 1662 and 1664, which were vigorously encouraged by Zheng Jing. He also promoted trade with the English, Dutch, Japanese and other Asian countries.
Zheng Jing died in 1681 after nearly 20 years of rule. As he left no legitimate successor, his illegitimate son Zheng Keshuang was to be appointed as the new king. This led to a split between the government and the military and to serious power struggles. The Qing government took advantage of Tungning's weakness and sent a fleet under Admiral Shi Lang to Taiwan. On July 16 and 17, 1683, the Tungning fleet under Liu Guoxuan was crushed at the Penghu Islands by the Chinese invasion fleet under Shi Lang. Qing troops landed on Taiwan. After losing several battles, King Zheng Keshuang offered to surrender on September 7, 1683. Finally, on October 3, 1683, Tungning surrendered to Shi Lang. After 21 years, the kingdom of Tungning ended. In 1684, Taiwan was divided into 3 counties by the Qing Emperor Kangxi and assigned as a prefecture to the Chinese province of Fujian.
Kingdom of Tungning (1662–1683)
* under the reign of Feng Xifan from 1682 to 1683.