November 30, 2021
The Black Moor is located in the Bavarian Rhön at the border triangle of Hesse, Thuringia and Bavaria and is part of the Rhön Biosphere Reserve. With 66.4 hectares, the wetland is the largest bog complex of fens and a largely untouched and intact rain bog in the Rhön. It is part of the Europe-wide nature reserve system Natura 2000 and one of the most important raised bogs in Central Europe. The Black Moor lies on the watershed between the Rhine and Weser rivers. In 2007 the moor was included in the list of the 100 most beautiful geotopes in Bavaria.
The Black Moor is an eccentric, domed, arched rain moor. Its surface shape corresponds to the Nordic Kermimooren. From the central plateau, shifted to the upper edge in the north, with a peat thickness of sometimes over eight meters, the surface slopes down on all sides. The central plateau forms an approximately rectangular area, with a length of about 800 meters in a northwest-southeast direction and a width of about 400 meters. On the most steeply inclined surfaces, flarks, which are arranged parallel to the contour lines, appear, that is, elongated, sharply delimited bends. These are up to 50 meters long and between one and three meters deep.
The Black Moor is located in the district of the Lower Franconian municipality of Hausen, six kilometers from Fladungen on the Hochrhönstrasse and on the state road (ST 2287) coming from Seiferts, one kilometer southeast of the border with Thuringia and two kilometers east of the border with Hesse. It is 770 to 782 meters above sea level in a flat hollow in the upper slope of the 805 meter high Querenberg, which slopes slightly to the south-east and whose summit is about one kilometer to the west.
Most of the moor drains through the ice trench 12 meters below in the south. It flows into the streu, which is six kilometers to the east and 400 meters below, and thus into the river system of the Rhine. Another outflow enters the Hessian Ulster, which flows three kilometers to the west and almost 300 meters below and is part of the Weser river system.
The black moor is next to the red moor one of the large moors of the Hochrhön, whose name, according to tradition, is derived from the color of the original plant cover. The parish co-operator of Simmershausen, Franz Anton Jäger, an avid natural scientist, wrote letters about the Hohe Rhoene Franconia in his 1803 writings that the Black Moor is much more humid than the Red Moor. That is why the red magellan peat moss (Sphagnum magellanicum), which also grows in the Black Moor, and which gave the Red Moor its name, would spoil again as soon as it germinated, and then turn black, which is why the moor is called the Black Moor. At the present time one can still be satisfied with this explanation of the naming.
The Black Moor, like the other high moors in the Rhön, was formed around 12,000 years ago after the last Ice Age.
In today's Rhön, clayey sediments were deposited in the Miocene. Volcanoes produced extensive lava flows 25 to 18 million years ago, which solidified to form weather-resistant basalt. During the last Ice Age, the Rhön was in the periglacial area, so it was not covered by glaciers. Firner erosion and floor tiles created large hollows on the slopes. In areas where these sealed the hollows with water-retaining sediments such as clays or loamy weathering residues of the basalts, rain bogs could form over low bog stadiums. The climatic conditions with high amounts of precipitation and low soil temperatures favored the growth of the bog. The other high moors of the Rhön are the Rote Moor (50 hectares), the Great Moor (eight hectares) and Small Moor (two hectares) on the Stirnberg, as well as the Moorlein on