1772 (MDCCLXXII) was a leap year beginning on a Wednesday according to the Gregorian calendar.
First division of Poland, between Russia, Prussia and Austria.
March 26: José Marcelino de Figueiredo founds Porto Alegre calling it Nossa Senhora Madre de Deus de Porto Alegre.
June 22: Opinion of the Supreme Court of England by which slavery became an illegal activity in England, and consequently any slave who set foot on English land obtained freedom automatically.
April 29: Mozart premieres Scipio's Dream in Salzburg.
December 26: Mozart premieres Lucio Sila in Milan.
February 7 – Miguel Ricardo de Álava, Spanish soldier and politician (d. 1843)
April 7 – Charles Fourier, French philosopher (d. 1837)
April 11 – Manuel José Quintana, Spanish poet (d. 1857)
April 19 – David Ricardo, British economist (d. 1823)
May 1 – Karl Friedrich von Gärtner, German botanist (d. 1850)
May 2 – Novalis, German poet (d. 1801)
July 1 – Rafael Esteve, Spanish gabador (d. 1847)
October 21 – Samuel Taylor Coleridge, British poet, critic, and philosopher (d. 1834)
March 29 – Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish theologian and scientist (b. 1688)
June 18 – Gerard van Swieten, Dutch-born Austrian physician (b. 1700)
December 7 – Martín Sarmiento, Spanish Benedictine writer and scholar (b. 1695)
Juan Nicolás de Aguirre Barrenechea, ordinary mayor of Santiago in 1734.
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