1945

Article

July 6, 2022

1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year beginning on a Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. This year marked the end of World War II, after the defeat of the Axis Powers (Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan respectively); Allied forces (particularly the United States and the Soviet Union) emerge as global superpowers and rapidly establish hegemony around the world; but that would bring about the beginning of an ideological rivalry known as the Cold War that would begin two years later. It was also the year in which nuclear weapons were used for the first and only time during the final stage of the global conflagration, when the United States decided to drop two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, causing the total destruction of the mentioned cities. and the direct death of thousands of civilians, thus contributing to the end of the war.

Events

January

January 1: Venezuela declares war on the Axis powers. January 2: in Japan - in the framework of World War II - American, British and Portuguese planes attack Taiwan and Okinawa. January 3: in Belgium ―in the context of World War II―, the German offensive in the Ardennes fails in the city of Bastogne. January 5 – The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet regime in Poland. January 6: the writer Carmen Laforet receives the I Nadal Prize, for her novel Nada de ella. January 10: in London, King George VI solemnly inaugurates the preparatory work of the United Nations Organization. January 11: in Spain, the founding law of the Institute of Hispanic Culture (currently the AECID) is decreed. January 13: As part of World War II, US aircraft begin an attack on Saigon (Vietnam), Hong Kong and Amoy (China). January 14: The 18th edition of the Copa América begins in Chile. January 20: in Washington (United States), Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt is sworn in as president for a fourth term. January 26: in Argentina, Juan Domingo Perón (Secretary of Labor and Welfare, and future President of the Republic) decrees the obligation of paid vacations for all Argentine workers.[1] January 26: in Mexico, the XXXVII Legislature of the state of Sonora declares Heriberto Aja as "illustrious educator" as a stimulus to the eminent services rendered by him as a teacher. January 27: in Poland - in the framework of World War II - the Soviet army arrives at the Auschwitz concentration camp and frees more than five thousand prisoners. January 30: in the Baltic Sea, 150 km northwest of the Polish city of Danzig, in the context of World War II, the Soviet Navy sinks the German ship KS Wilhelm Gustloff with torpedoes. 9,343 people (civilian and military) die and 1,239 are rescued by German ships.

February

February 2: Ecuador declares war on Nazi Germany. February 2: in the Philippines - in the context of World War II - US and Australian troops return to Manila. February 2: at the Teatro Español (in Madrid) the drama La jail infinite, by Joaquín Calvo Sotelo, premieres. February 3: In Nazi Germany, during World War II, the Allies drop 3,000 tons of bombs on Berlin. February 3: The Spanish Government creates, by decree, the monopoly Tabacalera S.A. February 4: German troops finish evacuating Belgium. February 4: At the Yalta Conference, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (United States), Winston Churchill (British Empire), and Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) divide up Europe. February 6: The World Trade Union Conference opens in London. February 6: In Quito (Ecuador) the football club Sociedad Deportiva Aucas is founded. February 7: in Portugal it is regulated and