June 23 is the 174th (one hundred and seventy-fourth) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar and the 175th in leap years. There are 191 days left to end the year.
79: in Rome, Emperor Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as emperor.
1158: in Spain, Sancho III of Castile and Fernando II of León sign the Treaty of Sahagún for the peace of both kingdoms.
1180: The first Battle of Uji of the Genpei Wars begins in Japan.
1280: The Moclín Disaster occurs, in which the Castilian troops led by the master of the Order of Santiago Gonzalo Ruiz Girón fall into an ambush and are defeated by those of the Nasrid king Muhammad II of Granada.
1287: the battle of the counts takes place.
1305: at Athis-sur-Orge Flemish and French sign a peace treaty.
1314: in the south of Stirling ―in the framework of the First Scottish War of Independence― the Battle of Bannockburn begins.
1532: Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France sign a secret pact against King Charles I of Spain.
1563: the city of Cartago is founded, as the capital of the Province of Nueva Cartago and Costa Rica.
1565: On the island of Malta, Turgut Reis (Dragut), commander of the Ottoman Empire, dies during the siege of Malta.
1661: Charles II and Catherine of Braganza marry in London.
1683: In the United States, William Penn signs the land treaty with the North American Indians.
1749: José Rafael Rodríguez Gallardo handed over the government of the province of Sonora and Sinaloa to Lieutenant Colonel Ortiz de Parrilla.
1757: at Plassey, India, the British army of 3,000 soldiers under the command of Robert Clive defeats the Indian army of 50,000 soldiers under the command of Siraj Ud Daulah (Battle of Plassey).
1758: in Krefeld (Germany) ―in the framework of the Seven Years' War― British forces defeat the French (Battle of Krefeld).
1760 : in the Battle of Landeshut ―in the framework of the Seven Years' War― Austria defeats Prussia.
1780: Battle of Springfield, in the framework of the American Revolution.
1794 – In kyiv, Empress Catherine II of Russia guarantees Jewish settlement.
1810: John Jacob Astor founds the Pacific Fur Company.
1812: Anglo-American War of 1812: Great Britain repeals restrictions on American trade, removing one of the main reasons for the war.
1812: during the Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon Bonaparte crosses the Niemen River in the direction of Moscow, starting the Patriotic War of 1812.
1858: in Bologna (Papal States), the police, by order of the Church, kidnap the Jewish boy Edgardo Mortara (1851-1940) at his parents' house.
1869: in Venezuela, General Venancio Pulgar declares the state of Zulia autonomous and independent; however, it is soon suffocated.
1868: Christopher Latham Sholes receives the patent for the first typewriter.
1887: Canada creates Banff National Park, the oldest in the country.
1894: The International Olympic Committee is founded in Paris.
1908: in Spain, the Government approves the Law for the Repression of Usury.
1914: in the city of Zacatecas, General Pancho Villa defeats the federal forces of Victoriano Huerta.
1919: in Wenden (Estonia) ―in the framework of the Estonian Liberation War― the national army defeats the German Freikorps (Baltische Landeswehr) in the battle of Cesis (Võnnu lahing). This day is celebrated as the National Liberation Day.
1923: in Vigo, the Real Club Celta de Vigo is founded with the merger of Fortuna and Sporting Vigo.
1933: Jaime de Borbón renounces his inheritance rights as the son of the King of Spain Alfonso XIII, pressured by his father for considering him incapacitated due to his deafness.
1937: in Mexico, General Lázaro Cárdenas del Río expropriates the railways and creates the company Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México.
1940: in France ―in the framework of the S