July 1, 2022

Alexandria (Arabic: الإسكندرية Al-ʼIskandariya, Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Isindireyya, Ancient Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια, Coptic: Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲟⲧⲉ Rakotə) is a city in the westernmost part of the Nile, on the northernmost part of the Nile of Rakotə) Lake Mariout of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the governorate of the same name, and the main port of the country. In addition, it is the second largest city in Egypt after Cairo. Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. C. in a strategic port region, it became in a few years the cultural center of the ancient world.

Physical Geography

It is based on a peninsula and extends to the island of Faros and on the mainland it extends to the south of the eastern port. This continental part is inhabited by Europeans while in the part of the peninsula is the Egyptian neighborhood.

Port City

Since ancient times, two ports have existed in Alexandria. A breakwater was built in 1870, renovated in 1906, which has enlarged the western port, making it the best in the eastern Mediterranean, which supports 80% of Egypt's foreign maritime traffic, since it can accommodate up to 250 deep-draft ships, and in where is the terminal of the Suez-Cairo-Alexandria pipeline, with an oil refinery and the commercial center, customs and numerous warehouses. It is also used as a base by fishing boats. The eastern port has been converted into a marina. The most important religious building in the city is the mosque of Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi, a 13th-century Murcian sheikh, patron saint of Alexandrian fishermen.


Foundation of Alexandria, 331 BC. C In the year 332 a. C., Egypt was under Persian rule. That same year, Alexander the Great entered Egypt triumphantly as the victor over Persian King Darius III and the Egyptians accepted him and acclaimed him as their liberator and proclaimed him pharaoh. It must also be taken into account that in Egypt there had been a large number of Greek colonies for a long time and that therefore they were not considered foreigners. In April 331 BC. C., he founded the city that would bear his name in a place in the Nile delta, on a town called Rakotis inhabited by a handful of fishermen. The choice of location was very fortunate because it was sheltered from the variations that the Nile River could have, and on the other hand, close enough to its course so that goods destined for the port could arrive through its waters, through of a canal that linked the river with Lake Mareotis and the port. To the east of Alexandria in ancient times (where Abu Kir Bay is now) there were several islands and swamps where from the 7th century BC. C. important cities like Canopus and Heracleion existed. The latter was recently rediscovered underwater. The place was in front of an island called Faro, which with time and the multiple improvements that would be made would be united by a long dyke to the city of Alejandro. The architect who carried out this work was called Dinocrates of Rhodes. The dike had a length of seven stadia (185 m each stadia), which is why it was called Heptastadion (Επτασταδίων). The construction of the dike formed two ports, on both sides: the Great Port to the east, the most important; and the Port of Good Return (Εύνοστος), to the west, which is the one that continues to be used today. Ships that had sailed the Mediterranean and the Atlantic docked on the wide docks of the great port. They brought merchandise that piled up on the docks: bronze ingots from the Iberian Peninsula, tin bars from Brittany, cotton from the Indies, silks from China. The famous lighthouse built on the island of Faros by Sostratos of Cnidus, in 280 BC. C., arranged at its top a permanently fed fire that guided