July 6, 2022

Germany (German, Deutschland, pronounced /ˈdɔʏtʃlant/ ( listen)), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German, Bundesrepublik Deutschland pronounced /ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant/ ( listen)), is one of the twenty-seven sovereign states that make up the European Union. Constituted in a social and democratic state of law, its form of government is the parliamentary and federal republic. Its capital is Berlin. It is made up of sixteen federal states (Bundesländer) and is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, Sweden (maritime border) and the Baltic Sea; to the east with Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south with Austria and Switzerland; and to the west with France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. The city of Büsingen am Hochrhein, located in Switzerland, is also part of Germany. The territory of Germany covers 357,376 km² in extension[4] and has a temperate climate. With almost 83 million inhabitants, it is the most populous country among the Member States of the European Union, and is home to the third largest group of international migrants. In 2014, Germany was the second most popular migration destination in the world, after the United States.[10] The words German and Germany are Latinizations of the old Germanic allmanis (composed of all 'everyone' and man 'man', that is, 'all men'); the Roman historian Amiano Marcelino was the first to speak of Alamannia in the fourth century to refer to a confederation of Germanic tribes.[citation needed] But these names were also used in ancient times by the Romans to name the Alemanni tribe ( not the same as Germans), the Germanic people closest to the territory of the Roman Empire. Hence it was used to name the entire country. In addition to German, the use of the Germanic gentile is also widespread, derived from the name with which the Romans referred to the neither Roman nor Celtic tribes of central Europe, whose territory they called Germania. From the year 962, the German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire, which lasted until 1806. During the 16th century, the northern regions of the country became the center of the Protestant Reformation. As a modern nation state, the country was unified at the time of the Franco-Prussian War of 1871. After World War II, when Nazi Germany was defeated by the Allies, Germany was divided into two separate states along lines of Allied occupation in 1949; the resulting States were the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, which were reunited in 1990. It was a founding member of the European Community (1957), which became the European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen area and adopted the common European currency, the euro, in 1999 (movement of cashless payments) and 2002 (cash payments). Germany is a member of the United Nations Organization, NATO, the G-7, the G4 nations, and signed the Kyoto Protocol. It is the world's fourth largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, the first in Europe, and was the world's largest merchandise exporter in 2007. In absolute terms, it allocates the third largest annual development aid budget in the world,[11 ] while its military spending ranked seventh in the world in 2020.[12] The country has developed a high standard of living and established a comprehensive social security system. It has a key position in European affairs and maintains a close relationship with several associations worldwide.[citation needed] It is recognized as one of the leaders in the scientific and technological sectors.[13][14]​


The name "Germany" comes from the Germanic people known to the Romans as Alemanni or Alamanni; first attested by Dio Cassius in the context of a military campaign of the emperor