Ancient Egypt

Article

July 1, 2022

Ancient Egypt or Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization, originating along the middle and lower reaches of the Nile River, whose history spans more than three millennia. It is considered one of the most important of humanity.[1] The area of ​​Ancient Egypt has varied over the centuries, but it is generally accepted that it ranged from the Nile Delta in the north to Elephantine at the First Cataract of the Nile in the south. It also controlled the eastern desert, the Red Sea coastline, the Sinai Peninsula, and a large western territory dominating the scattered oases. Historically, it was made up of Upper and Lower Egypt, to the south and north respectively, which preceded the creation of a unified state. In its period of greatest expansion, it controlled the Amorite kingdoms of Palestine and northern Syria, reaching as far as the middle Euphrates, and the Nubian chiefdoms of the Sudan, as far as Jebel Barkal, on the fourth cataract of the Nile. It exerted an important cultural influence among the neighboring towns, and even in regions as far away as Cyprus, the Anatolian coast and the Hellenic peninsula. The Egyptian civilization developed for more than 3,500 years. It began with the unification of some cities in the Nile Valley,[2] around 3200 BC. C.,[3]​ and conventionally it is considered finished in the year 31 a. C., when the Roman Empire conquered and absorbed Ptolemaic Egypt, which disappeared as a state.[4] This event did not represent the first period of foreign domination in Egypt, but it led to a gradual transformation in the political and religious life of the Nile Valley, marking the end of the independent development of their cultural identity. This, however, had begun to gradually dissolve after the conquests of the Persians (6th century BC) and the Macedonians (4th century BC), especially during the period of the Ptolemies. The arrival of Christianity, and its spread among the native Egyptians, cut off one of the last survivals of ancient Egyptian culture. In 535, by order of Justinian I, the cult of the goddess Isis was prohibited in the temple of Philae, thus ending a religion of more than four millennia. However, the Egyptian language (called Coptic) continued to be used, written in an alphabet derived from Greek, and the native Egyptians fully identified with Christianity, especially the Monophysite doctrine. Then a Coptic literature arose, of a Christian nature, which collected myths, customs and beliefs of the ancient traditional religion. The disappearance of Coptic and its replacement by Arabic, within the framework of the Islamization of the country after its conquest, marked the definitive end of the last remains of Ancient Egypt. Egypt has a unique combination of geographical features, situated in northeastern Africa and bordered by Libya, Sudan, and the Red and Mediterranean seas. The Nile River was the key to the success of the Egyptian civilization, since it allowed the use of resources and offered a significant advantage over other opponents: the fertile silt deposited along the banks of the Nile after the annual floods meant for Egyptians practice a less laborious form of agriculture than in other areas, freeing the population to devote more time and resources to cultural, technological and artistic development. Life was ordered around the development of an independent writing system and literature, as well as careful state control over natural and human resources, characterized above all by the irrigation of the fertile Nile basin and the mining of the Nile. valley and the surrounding desert regions, the organization of collective projects such as large public works, trade with neighboring regions of East and Central Africa and with