August 15, 2022

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic,[h] is a sovereign country in South America, located in the extreme south and southeast of said subcontinent. It adopts the republican, democratic, representative and federal form of government. Argentina is organized as a decentralized federal state, composed since 1994 of twenty-three provinces and one Autonomous City, which are twenty-three provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA), the latter designated as the federal capital of the country.[8][ i] The 24 jurisdictions or self-governed districts have their own constitution, flag and security force. The 23 provinces maintain all the powers not delegated to the national State, have three autonomous powers and guarantee the autonomy of their municipalities.[9][10]​ It integrates Mercosur —the block of which it was a founder in 1991—, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Organization of American States (OAS). For 2020, with a net score of 0.845, Argentina is the second country with the highest Human Development Index (HDI) in Latin America, only behind its neighbor Chile.[11] Adjusted for inequality, Argentina falls four places in the classification, while according to the gender inequality index its location falls back to position 75.[11] In education, the law establishes that public spending on education should not be less than 6% of GDP,[12] with a literacy rate of people over 15 years of age greater than 99%.[13] The Argentine economy is the second most developed and important in South America. According to the World Bank, its nominal GDP is the 27th in the world.[14] Due to its geopolitical and economic importance, it is one of the three sovereign Latin American states that are part of the so-called Group of 20 and also integrates the group of the NICs or new industrialized countries.[15] It is the only Latin American country that has a scientific research and teaching center among the top ten in the world,[16] and the Ibero-American country with the largest number of Nobel Prize winners in science. Its technological and scientific capacity has allowed it to design, produce and export satellites,[17] build nuclear reactors and be the first producer of software, aircraft, among other things. It is considered a regional power.[18] It has provided growing nuclear cooperation to countries in Latin America, the Maghreb, the Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia and Oceania, based on the capabilities developed by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and by the prestigious state-owned company INVAP.[ 19] It is the Latin American country that has won the most Nobel Prizes —five in total—, three of them linked to science. It is a bicontinental country with an area of ​​2,780,400 km²,[2] it is the largest Spanish-speaking country on the planet, the second largest in Latin America and eighth in the world, if only the continental area subject to effective sovereignty is considered. . Its continental shelf, recognized by the UN in 2016, reaches 6,581,500 km²,[20] becoming one of the largest in the world,[21] extending from the American continent to the South Pole in Antarctica, at across the South Atlantic. If the Malvinas, South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands and numerous other smaller islands (administered by the United Kingdom, but whose sovereignty is in dispute) are included, plus a portion of the Antarctic area called Argentine Antarctica south of parallel 60° S, over which Argentina claims sovereignty, the surface rises to 3,761,274 km².[22] It is one of the twenty countries that have a permanent presence in Antarctica, being among them the one with the largest number of permanent bases, with six bases total. Its territory brings together a great diversity of climates, caused by a latitudinal amplitude that exceeds 30° —including several z