The Bible

Article

May 23, 2022

The Bible (from the Latin biblĭa, and this from the Greek βιβλία biblía, 'books')[1] is a set of canonical books that in Christianity and other religions are considered a product of divine inspiration and a reflection or record of the relationship between God and humanity. The Bible is organized by two main parts; Old Testament (Tanakh, canonical holy books in Judaism) and the New Testament that focuses on Jesus Christ and early Christianity. It was at the Council of Rome in the year 382, ​​when the Catholic Church together with Pope Damasus I instituted the Biblical Canon with the list of the New Testament similar to that of Athanasius of Alexandria and the books of the Old Testament of the LXX Version. This version was translated from Greek into Latin by Jerome (the Vulgate) at the request of the Church. Subsequently, the Regional Councils III of Hippo in 393, III of Carthage in 397 and IV of Carthage in 419, in which Agustín de Hipona participated, definitively approved said canon. In the year 405 this list was sent by Innocent to Bishop Exuperio de Tolosa (in Gaul, today France), where the biblical canon appears with the 73 already existing books. The Council of Trent fixed the canon of the Catholic Church declaring it a dogma.[2] It is estimated that over the centuries around five billion copies of the Bible in all its varieties have been produced (although some put it at many more[3]), most of them in recent decades (three thousand nine hundred million between the years 1960 and 2013[4]), which makes it the most widely distributed and sold book in history, being frequently recognized as the most influential book of all time.[5][6][ 7] The great success of its distribution in recent times is attributed to the printing press, having been the first book made by means of movable type printing (known as the Gutenberg Bible).[8] In May 2000, it was stated that “the Bible has done more to shape literature, culture, and entertainment than any other book ever written. Its influence on world history is second to none, and it shows no sign of waning."[9] About one hundred million copies of the Bible are sold each year,[10][11] having been translated into 438 languages. in its entirety (Old Testament, New Testament and additional texts), and in part to at least 2454 languages.[12][13]

Etymology

The word Bible comes, through the Latin biblĭa, from the Greek expression τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια (ta biblía ta hágia; 'the sacred books'), coined for the first time in the deuterocanonical 1 Maccabees 12:9,[14] where ? , important papyrus market of antiquity.[16] However, since Byblos could only hardly be a loanword from that city's original name in Phoenician, Gubla, there is a possibility that it was the city that received its Greek name from the term for the papyrus plant, and not the other way around.[17] This expression was used by the Hellenized Hebrews (those who lived in Greek-speaking cities) long before the birth of Jesus of Nazareth to refer to the Tanakh or Old Testament. Many years later it began to be used by Christians to refer to the set of books that make up the Old Testament, as well as the Gospels and the apostolic letters (that is, the New Testament). At that time, it was already common to use only the first phrase, τὰ βιβλία, as a title. Already as a title, it began to be used in Latin Biblia Sacra (‘the sacred books’), s