Bolivia

Article

August 15, 2022

Bolivia, officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia[12] (Quechua, Puliwya Achka Aylluska Mamallaqta; Aymara, Wuliwya hanya Suyunakana Marka; Guarani, Tetã Hetvoqregua Mborívia), is a sovereign landlocked country located in the western central region of America Sur, a member of the Andean Community,[13] is politically constituted as a plurinational, decentralized and autonomous social state.[14] The country is organized into nine departments,[13] its constitutional and historical capital is Sucre,[ 15] accommodating the judicial body; while its seat of Government is the city of La Paz, which houses the executive, legislative and electoral bodies. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, and Chile and Peru to the west. It is a landlocked state and constitutionally maintains a territorial claim to Chile for a sovereign outlet to the Pacific Ocean. Its surface area is the sixth most extensive in Latin America and comprises various geographical spaces such as the Andes mountain range, the Altiplano, the Amazon, the Moxos Llanos and the Chaco, being one of the most biodiverse countries in the world.[16] . . . In its territory developed pre-Hispanic civilizations such as Tiwanaku, the Hydraulic Culture of the Hills, the Moxeña culture and others that survive to the present day, such as the Aymaras, Urus, Chiquitas, Guaraníes and others. The Incas conquered the western part of the present Bolivian territory and called it Collasuyo. Subsequently the Spanish Empire dominated the territory, which was called Real Audiencia de Charcas until in 1825 it became independent under the name of República de Bolívar, which later passed to be called República de Bolivia. In its current political constitution Bolivia declared itself as a plurinational country in recognition that several nations whose origins predate Spanish colonization coexist on its territory. It has a population of about 10.1 million inhabitants according to the latest census of 2012.[17] Bolivia is a multiethnic state, whose population includes people of indigenous, mestizo, European, Asian and African origins. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages ​​also have official status, the most widely spoken of which are Quechua, Aymara and Guarani. Bolivia is a middle-income developing country and is among the countries that have experienced the most economic growth in the South American region in the last decade.[18] It is a founding member of the United Nations and a member of the IMF , the OAS and Unasur. It is in the process of joining Mercosur.

Toponymy

The name Bolivia is a derivation of the paternal surname of the liberator Simón Bolívar During the viceroyal period, the geographical area was called Upper Peru. After the proclamation of the independence of the Spanish Empire on August 6, 1825, the Asamblea Deliberante approved on the 11th of the same month the law of Awards and honors to the Liberators, the first article of this law indicated that the new State would receive the name of "República de Bolívar".[20] Months later the name was changed, without a resolution of the Deliberative Assembly, accepting the argument proposed by the deputy of Potosí, Presbítero Manuel Martín Cruz, who said the following: Rómulo, Rome; de ​​Bolívar, Bolivia".[21] The new Republic officially adopted the name Bolivia on October 3, Bolivar, upon accepting the honor of having the new country bear his name, and after being designated first president by the Deliberative Assembly, christened Bolivia as his “Predilected Daughter” and pronounced the following proclamation: In 2009, a new constitution changed the country’s official name to “Plurinational State of Bolivia” in recognition of the country’s multiethnic nature and posi