2022 monkeypox outbreak

Article

July 1, 2022

The 2022 monkeypox outbreak began in the United Kingdom on April 29, 2022, with the report of a British resident who presented symptoms of the disease after traveling to Nigeria, where the disease is endemic. The patient returned to the UK on May 4 and was the index case.[2] The origin of several cases of monkeypox reported in the UK is unknown. However, some reports suggest a community transmission in the London area that has occurred since mid-May. Likewise, cases have been reported in the North East region of England and in other countries, such as Portugal, the United States and Canada.[3] This outbreak is from the West African branch, according to the World Health Organization, it has a fatality rate of around 1%.[4]​, and at the moment even the international governing body of health does not consider it of global concern to be considered a pandemic, despite its rapid expansion.[5]

Disease

Monkeypox is a rare viral zoonosis caused by Monkeypox virus, an Orthopoxvirus similar to the eradicated Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. It presents with symptoms similar to the latter disease, although with less severity.[6][7]​ Monkeypox is endemic to West Africa and Central Africa. Before the 2022 outbreak, the UK had only recorded seven previous cases of monkeypox, all of which were imported cases from Africa or health workers involved in treating them. The first three such cases occurred in 2018, followed by another case in 2019[8] and three more in 2021. The only major outbreak of monkeypox in a Western country before 2022 was the smallpox outbreak of the 2003 midwestern monkey in the United States; however, this outbreak did not present community transmission. Monkeypox spreads primarily through close contact with infectious people. Before the 2022 outbreak, monkeypox was not considered a sexually transmitted infection. However, the rapid spread of the virus between sexual partners in the early stages of the outbreak has prompted discussion that sexual intercourse may be another route of transmission.[3]

Symptoms

These are the main symptoms of monkeypox which can add up over the course of days:[9] Rash with blisters on the face, hands, feet, eyes, mouth and genitals. Fever Headache muscle pain Low energy, manifested with an atypical anemia Swollen lymph nodesMonkeypox spreads from person to person in many ways: Physical contact with someone with symptoms. Touching things contaminated with the virus (clothes, towels, surfaces, etc.)

Chronology

The first case was a British resident who traveled in late April 2022 to Lagos and Delta State in Nigeria, areas where monkeypox is considered endemic.[10] The individual developed symptoms of monkeypox. , including a rash, on April 29 while he was still in Nigeria. He subsequently flew back to the UK, where he arrived on May 4. He showed up at the hospital later the same day. Monkeypox infection was immediately suspected, and the individual was hospitalized at Guy's Hospital[11] and isolated after testing positive for the virus. Polymerase chain reaction testing of patient swab samples revealed that the outbreak was from the West African clade of monkeypox, which is the less deadly of the two known variants of monkeypox with a rate of mortality between 1% and 3.6%.[12] Comprehensive contact tracing was carried out on people who had been in contact with the index case both and