Canada

Article

October 28, 2021

Canada (in English, Canada, AFI: / ˈkænədə /; in French, Canada, AFI: / kanadɔ / or / kanada /) is a sovereign country in North America, whose form of government is the federal parliamentary monarchy. Its territory is organized into ten provinces and three territories. Its capital is the city of Ottawa and the most populous city is Toronto. Located in the extreme north of the North American subcontinent, it stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and north to the Arctic Ocean. It shares a border with the United States to the south, and to the northwest with its federal state Alaska. It is the second largest country in the world after Russia, and also the northernmost. It occupies about half the territory of North America. Because of its climate, it is one of the 15 countries with the lowest population density in the world, with approximately 4 inhabitants per square kilometer. The territory occupied by Canada was inhabited by the various Aboriginal population groups for millennia. Since the late 15th century, numerous British and French expeditions explored along the Atlantic coast, where they later settled. France ceded almost all of its North American colonies in 1763 after the Franco-Indian War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through the Confederacy, Canada was formed as a federal domain of four provinces. [6] [7] This started an accumulation of provinces and territories, and a process of autonomy versus the UK. This increasing autonomy was highlighted in the 1931 Statute of Westminster and culminated in the 1982 Canadian Constitution Act, which broke the vestiges of legal dependence on the British Parliament. [8] It is governed as a democracy. parliamentary and constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II as head of state. It is a bilingual country with English and French as official languages ​​at the federal level. Canada is an industrially and technologically pioneering and advanced country, largely self-sufficient in energy thanks to its relatively extensive deposits of fossil fuels and extensive generation of nuclear power and hydroelectric power. Being one of the most developed countries, it has a diversified economy, which makes it independent due to its large deposits and abundant natural resources as well as trade, particularly with the United States and Mexico. It is currently a member of the OAS, the G-7, the G-20, NATO, the OECD, the WTO, the UKUSA, the APEC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Francophonie and the United Nations. It is considered one of the countries with the best quality of life. [4]

Etymology

The name "Canada" comes from the Iroquois root kanāta which means 'town', 'settlement' or, initially referring to Stadaconé, a settlement on the site of present-day Quebec City. [9] [10] The French explorer Jacques Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but also to the entire area under Stadaconé; by 1545, European maps and books had begun to refer to the entire region as Canada. [11] From the 17th century onward, the region of New France that lay near the St. Lawrence River and along the northern shore of the Great Lakes was known as Canada. Later, the area was divided into two British colonies: Upper Canada and Lower Canada, although in 1841 they were rejoined as the Province of Canada. [12] Following the Confederacy of 1867, the name Canada was adopted as the legal name. for the new country and the Dominion (a term from Psalm 72: 8) [13] was the title conferred on the country. Combined, the term Dominion of Canada was used until the 1950s. [14] As the Dominion asserted its political autonomy d

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