certification

Article

July 6, 2022

Certification is a procedure intended for an independent and authorized body to validate or rule on the quality of the system applied by an organization, starting and verifying whether or not it complies with the provisions of a certain reference or quality model, recognized and official. It is a conformity assessment process, which allows to result in a written report in relation to a product, a person, or an organization, ensuring that it meets certain requirements, characteristics, and/or demands.[1] There are three main categories or classes of certification: Certification by the first party, when it is the institution or the person himself, who makes a self-declaration about the requirements or requirements that are required and that are fulfilled. Certification by a second party, in which case, it is the client who establishes the conformity with respect to his supplier. Third Party Certification or Trusted Third Party Certification (in English: Trusted third party; French: Tiers de confiance), in which case conformity is verified and established by an independent certification body.

History

In another time in France, the certifier was for example: For its part, regarding the successful bidders of the "Tuilerie du Bois du Roi",[3] in Pargny-sur-Saulx, in the 1769 dictionary of M. Chailland (former King's Attorney), it is stated: As for participatory certification systems, they emerged in the 1970s, to address the lack of official certification in areas such as organic farming.[5]

Typology

Accounting certification, verification process of accounts of a company or an organization. Electronic certification, also known as digital certification, electronic certificate attribution process through or with the support of a trusted third party. Environmental certification, a process aimed at establishing and verifying the quality of the environment or its deterioration as a result of certain human activities. Professional certification, process of attribution of a diploma, a title, or a certificate, establishing a professional competence. Certification of record sales, reward, attestation, and recognition to artists whose record productions have reached high sales figures. Diamond Award, recognition given by the 'Recording Industry Association of America' (RIAA), to those artists who, for an album and/or a single, have achieved more than 10 million copies sold Diamond Record, record award given to an artist, for a single, a music video, a studio album, or a single from a studio album, for the high sales obtained during their recording career. Forest certification, which allows consumers to be informed if the wood or firewood they buy has come from sustainably managed forests or not.[6]

Participatory Certification or Participatory Guarantee Systems

In participatory certification systems, certification is made by a network of actors, for example, groups of producers and consumers. These systems are based on trust and networks for the exchange of knowledge and experiences.[5] In these cases, we speak of Participatory Guarantee Systems. The advantages of participatory certification encompass the exchange of knowledge and experiences between the actors themselves, which gives the possibility of including macro issues, such as environmental, economic-financial, and social quality criteria, as well as the possibility for small entrepreneurs to access, as a group, certification by an independent third party (in French: Certification tierce partie).[7] Participatory certification is defended and supported, in the domain of biological agriculture.