Deforestation

Article

December 7, 2021

Deforestation or deforestation [1] is a process caused by human action, in which the forest area is destroyed or depleted, [2] [3] [4] generally with the aim of allocating the soil to another activity. At present, it is directly related to industrial activities, such as slash and burn for the expansion of the agricultural frontier to give rise to intensive agriculture and livestock. The expansion of urban areas and mining activities also drive deforestation. The construction of roads and access roads to increasingly remote forests through poaching contributes to deforestation. To a lesser extent, subsistence agriculture is also involved in deforestation activities. [5] According to British researcher Norman Myers, 5% of deforestation is due to cattle ranching, 19% to excessive logging, 22 % to tree plantations (especially palm oil) and 54% to slash and burn agriculture. [6] Deforestation has a direct impact on current climate change and global warming. Deforestation and other agricultural practices are estimated to have contributed about 20% of global carbon dioxide emissions in the past decades. [7] [8] Deforestation destroys the quality of soils, contributing to erosion. of soils and desertification, increasing the release of mineral dust and thus contributing to sandstorms. [9] Forest ecosystems act as carbon sinks and play a crucial role in the absorption of greenhouse gases, [10 ] Therefore deforestation has an adverse impact on the fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2). More than 70% of animals and plants live in forest areas, so deforestation has a dramatic impact on the loss of habitat for millions of species, extinction of species, the decline of insect populations, the loss of global biomass and of biodiversity. Deforestation affects the albedo of the earth, producing changes in global temperatures, winds and rainfall. [11] Trees also contribute to the hydrological cycle by returning water vapor to the atmosphere. Tree removal also causes extreme temperature fluctuations. [12] Deforestation causes the displacement of indigenous populations [13] [14] [15] and rural communities, [16] and increases the spread and varieties of infectious diseases transmitted to humans by animals that lose their habitat. [ 17] [18] Since 1750, the largest changes in the planet's surface have been caused by deforestation in temperate climates: when forests and jungles are reduced to make room for grass, the albedo of the affected region increases, which could lead to warming or cooling, depending on local conditions. [19] Deforestation also affects carbon uptake, which can produce high concentrations of CO2, the main component of greenhouse gases. [20] Certain ways of cleaning up Soils such as slash and burn exacerbate these effects by burning biomass, which directly releases greenhouse gases and particles such as soot into the air. Forests still cover about 31% of the world's regions. [21] 10,000 years ago, before the expansion of agriculture, the forest cover on the planet was about 50%. Most of this loss of forest area has occurred in the last century. [22] Brazil, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nigeria and Tanzania are the five countries that had the highest percentage of deforestation in the period 2010-2015. [ 23] Sustainable Development Goal number 15 calls for stopping deforestation by 2020. [24] Definition

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