October 28, 2021
Natural disaster is a term that refers to the enormous losses of materials and human lives caused by natural events or phenomena, such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, landslides, among others.  According to the (UNOFDRR), disasters are not natural, but are the result of omissions and lack of prevention, and disasters occur due to the action of man in their environment. For example: a hurricane in the middle of the ocean is not a disaster, unless a ship passes by. [Note 1] Natural phenomena (such as rain, earthquakes, hurricanes and tsunamis among others) become disasters when they exceed a normal limit, generally measured through a parameter. This varies depending on the type of phenomenon, and can be the Magnitude of the Seismic Moment (Mw), the Richter scale, the Saffir-Simpson scale for hurricanes, etc. The effects of a disaster can be amplified as poor planning of human settlements, lack of security measures, emergency plans and man-made warning systems becomes a bit diffuse. On the other hand, some disasters are caused solely by human activities. Some of these are: environmental pollution, irrational exploitation of renewable natural resources such as forests and non-renewable soil such as minerals; also, the construction of houses and buildings in high-risk areas. Human activity in areas with a high probability of disasters is known as high risk. High risk areas without instrumentation or appropriate measures to respond to the disaster or reduce its negative effects are known as high vulnerability areas. In order for the institutional capacity to reduce the collective risk of disasters, these can trigger other events that will reduce the possibility of surviving this due to deficiencies in planning and in security measures, also create an emergency plan.