August 15, 2022

Spain, also known as the Kingdom of Spain, [note 1] is a transcontinental sovereign country, a member of the European Union, constituted as a social and democratic State of law and whose form of government is the parliamentary monarchy. Its territory, with its capital in Madrid,[30] is organized into seventeen autonomous communities, formed in turn by fifty provinces; and two autonomous cities. Spain is located in southwestern Europe and northern Africa. In Europe, it occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Peninsular Spain, and the Balearic Islands (in the Mediterranean Sea); in Africa there are the cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the Canary Islands (in the Atlantic Ocean) and several Mediterranean possessions called «squares of sovereignty». The municipality of Llivia, in the Pyrenees, constitutes an exclave completely surrounded by French territory. The set of territories is completed by a series of islands and islets off the peninsular coasts. It has an area of ​​505,370 km²,[11] making it the fourth largest country on the continent,[note 2] and with an average altitude of 650 m above sea level. n. m. (meters above sea level), one of the most mountainous countries in Europe. Its population exceeds 47 million inhabitants, although the population density is low.[13][31] Specifically, the population during 2021 was reduced by 65,688 inhabitants, reaching 47,385,107, after four years of increase .[32] The peninsular territory shares land borders with France and Andorra to the north, with Portugal to the west and with the British territory of Gibraltar to the south. In its African territories, it shares land and sea borders with Morocco. It shares with France the sovereignty over the island of Pheasants at the mouth of the Bidasoa river and five Pyrenean facerías.[33] The Constitution, and its article 3.1, establishes that “Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. All Spaniards have the duty to know it and the right to use it."[3] In 2012, it was the mother tongue of 82% of Spaniards.[34] According to article 3.2, "the other Spanish languages ​​will also be official in the respective Autonomous Communities in accordance with their Statutes."[3] The Spanish or Castilian language, the second most widely spoken mother tongue in the world and with almost 600 million Spanish speakers,[35] is one of the most important legacies of the heritage. cultural and historical of Spain in the world. Culturally belonging to Latin Europe and heir to a vast Greco-Roman influence, Spain is also home to the world's fourth largest collection of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[36] It is a developed country - it enjoys the second highest life expectancy in the world - and high income, whose GDP places the Spanish economy in the fourteenth position in the world (2021).[37] Thanks to its unique characteristics, Spain is a great tourist power and stands as the second most visited country in the world —more than 83 million tourists in 2019— and the second country in the world in economic income from international tourism.[38][39] It has an index of very high human development (0.904), according to the 2020 report of the UN Development Program.[15] Spain also has a notable international projection through its membership of multiple international organizations such as the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the OECD, NATO and the European Union —including the Schengen area and the Eurozone within it—, in addition to being a de facto member of the G20. The first confirmed presence of hominids of the genus Homo dates back to 1.2 million years before the present, as evidenced by the discovery of a still unclassified Homo mandible