December 7, 2021

United States [note 2] (USA; in English, United States or US), [note 3] whose official name is United States of America (USA; in English, United States of America or USA), [ 11] is a sovereign country constituted in a constitutional federal republic composed of fifty states and a federal district. Most of the country is located in the middle of North America - where its 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the federal district are located - between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. It borders Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, bordered by Canada to the east, separated from Russia to the west by the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is a Polynesian archipelago in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and is the only one of its states that is not in America. The country has several unincorporated territories in the Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific. With 9.83 million square kilometers, [4] and with more than 331 million inhabitants, the country is in fourth place by total area, in fifth by contiguous area and in third place by population. It is one of the nations with the most diversity of ethnicities and cultures, a product of large-scale immigration. [12] It is the world's largest national economy in nominal terms, with an estimated GDP of $ 22.6 trillion (a quarter of nominal global GDP) and a fifth of global GDP at purchasing power parity. [7] The country is the main capitalist force on the planet, in addition to being a leader in scientific research and technological innovation since the 19th century and, since the beginning of the 20th century, the main industrial country. In PPP GDP, the United States is the second largest economy, behind China. [13] The continental United States was inhabited by various indigenous groups for thousands of years. This aboriginal population was reduced by disease and war after first contact with Europeans. The United States was founded by thirteen British colonies, along the Atlantic coast. On July 4, 1776, they issued the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed their right to self-determination and the establishment of a cooperative union. The rebellious states defeated the British Empire in the war of independence, the first successful colonial war of an independence character. [14] The Constitution of the United States was adopted on September 17, 1787; its ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic with a strong central government. The Bill of Rights, which comprises ten constitutional amendments guaranteeing many fundamental civil rights and freedoms, was ratified in 1791. In the 19th century, the United States acquired territories from France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Mexico, Russia, and Japan, in addition to annexing the republics of Florida, Texas, California, and Hawaii. In the 1860s, disputes between the conservative agrarian south and the progressive industrial north over the rights of states and the abolition of slavery sparked the Civil War. The northern victory prevented a permanent division of the country and led to the end of legal slavery. By the 1890s, the national economy was the largest in the world [15] and the Spanish-American War and World War I confirmed its status as a military power. After World War II, it emerged as the first nuclear-armed country and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. During the Cold War, the United States fought in the Korean War and the Vietnam War, but avoided direct military conflict with the Soviet Union. The two superpowers competed in the Space Race, culminating in the 1969 spaceflight that carried the

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