Fidel Castro

Article

December 7, 2021

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (Birán, [1] Oriente, Cuba; August 13, 1926-Havana, Cuba; November 25, 2016) [2] was a Cuban Marxist lawyer, politician and guerrilla. After overthrowing the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista thanks to a guerrilla war during the Cuban Revolution, [5] [6] he was president of his country for 50 years, [5] as Prime Minister (1959-1976) and president (1976-2008). [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] During his tenure, Cuba became a socialist state of Marxist-Leninist ideology, under the command of the Communist Party of Cuba, the only one on the island since it came to power, and nationalizations and expropriations of productive media were carried out with the objective of carrying out a socialist economic policy. He was also a deputy of the National Assembly of People's Power since 1976, as well as Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (1956-2008), [note 1] and held power as first secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1965 to 2011 , when he definitively left his position as leader of his country and transferred all the powers of the nation to his brother Raúl Castro. Professionally, he was a lawyer, a graduate in diplomatic law and a doctor of civil law. [12] He began in public life as an opposition guerrilla after the assault on the Moncada barracks in 1953, for which he was taken to prison. After being pardoned due to pressure from public opinion, [13] he went into exile in Mexico, where he planned the guerrilla invasion of 1956. He came to power after leading the Cuban Revolution and overthrowing the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista on January 1, 1959. [6] He was appointed Prime Minister on February 27 of the same year by President Manuel Urrutia. He led the adoption of Marxism by the revolutionary government in 1961, establishing the first socialist state in America. [Citation needed] After the 1976 constitutional reform, he was elected president of the Council of State and the Council of Ministers. He was the founder of the Communist Party in 1965, and from then until 2011 he was its first secretary. On February 19, 2008, in a letter published in the Granma newspaper, he announced that he would not run for or accept the position of president and commander at the meeting of the National Assembly of People's Power on February 24 of the same year. [ 14] In the international arena, he initially established good relations with the United States; then close ties with the Soviet Union. After a series of expropriations from US citizens, disagreements with the United States led to an economic embargo on the Cuban government. Since then, his relationship with this country was antagonistic, and especially after the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961. Fidel Castro received national and foreign decorations. Due to his management and the controversial characteristics of his policies, a controversial and intense debate on an ideological background has been generated. [Which one?] [15] [16] [17] He died in Havana on November 25, 2016 at the age of 90. [2] His brother, Raúl Castro, succeeded him first as president of the Council of State and of the Council of Ministers (and, therefore, as president of Cuba), since July 31, 2006 on an interim basis, and from February 24, 2008 to April 18, 2018 officially; and later, as the first secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, since April 2011. [18]

Biography

Childhood and youth

Fidel Castro was born in 1926 on the farm belonging to his father in Birán (at that time in the municipality of Mayarí and the former province of Oriente and now respectively the municipality of Cueto and the province of Holguín). He was the natural son of a Spanish émigré, Ángel Castro Argiz, married in a second nuptials years later [19] with Lina Ruz González, also of Spanish descent. [20] Fi

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