May 22, 2022
Geology (from the Greek γῆ /guê/, 'Earth', and -λογία /-loguía/, 'treatise') is the natural science that studies the composition and structure, both internal and superficial, of the planet Earth, and the processes by which it has evolved over geological time. It comprises a set of geosciences, well known today from the point of view of its pedagogy, development and professional application. It offers essential testimonies to understand plate tectonics, the history of life through paleontology, and how it evolved, as well as the climates of the past. Today, geology is of fundamental importance in the exploration of mineral deposits (mining) and hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas), and the evaluation of underground water resources (hydrogeology). It is also of fundamental importance in the prevention and understanding of natural phenomena such as mass removal, in general earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, among others. It provides key knowledge in solving environmental pollution problems, and provides information on past climate changes. It also plays an important role in geotechnics and civil engineering. Geology includes branches such as geophysics, tectonics, structural geology, stratigraphy, historical geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, petrology, and soil science. Although mining and precious stones have been the subject of human interest throughout the history of civilization, their scientific development within the science of geology did not occur until the eighteenth century. The study of the Earth, especially paleontology, flourished in the 19th century, and the growth of other disciplines, such as geophysics with the theory of plate tectonics in the 1960s, had a similar impact on Earth sciences. to the theory of evolution over biology. By extension, it is applied to the study of the rest of the bodies and matter of the solar system (astrogeology or planetary geology).