Olympic Games

Article

July 1, 2022

The Olympic Games[2]​ (JJ. OO.)[3]​ (Jeux Olympiques in French and Olympic Games in English),[Note 1]​ Olympiads[5]​ or Olympiads[6]​ are the largest sporting event multidisciplinary international in which athletes from various parts of the world participate. The Olympic Games are considered the main competition in the sports world, with more than two hundred participating nations.[7] There are two types: the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games, which are held with an interval of two years, according to the Olympic Charter: "The Games of the Olympiad are held during the first year of an Olympiad and the Winter Olympics during its third year."[8] The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the Olympic Games of antiquity from the 8th century BC. C. organized in ancient Greece with headquarters in the city of Olympia, carried out between the years 776 a. C. and 393 of our era. In the 19th century, the idea arose of holding events similar to those organized in ancient times, which would materialize mainly thanks to the efforts of the French nobleman Pierre Frèdy, Baron de Coubertin. Baron de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894. Since then, the IOC has become the coordinating body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The first edition of the so-called Olympic Games of the modern era was held in Athens, the capital of Greece, starting on April 6, 1896.[9] Since that time, they have been held every four years in various cities of the world, the only exceptions being the editions of 1916, 1940 and 1944, due to the outbreak of the First and Second World War; as well as the postponement of the 2020 to 2021, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The evolution of the Olympic movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has given rise to several modifications in the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Games for winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with some type of disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for adolescent athletes. The Winter Olympics were held for the first time in 1924, in the French town of Chamonix. Originally held as part of the summer event, they were retroactively considered a separate event by the IOC, and from that date began to be held in the same year as the original games. Subsequently, in order to promote the development of winter events, the IOC decided to phase out the Winter Games from Lillehammer 1994. Since then, the Winter Olympics have been held in even years between two Summer Games. . The first Summer Youth Olympic Games were held in Singapore in 2010, while the Winter Youth Olympic Games were held in Innsbruck in 2012. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political and technological developments. As a result, the Olympic Games have moved away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allow professional athletes to participate. The growing importance of the mass media initiated the issue of corporate sponsorship and the commercialization of the Games. Major boycotts were carried out during the Cold War at the 1980 and 1984 Games. The Olympic Movement consists of International Federations of each sport, National Olympic Committees and Organizing Committees of each edition. The IOC is responsible for choosing the host city. According to the Olympic Charter, the host city is responsible for the organization and financing of the Games. The Olympic program, made up of the sports played at the Games, is also determined by the IOC. exist