Luxembourg

Article

July 1, 2022

Luxembourg, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg), is one of the twenty-seven sovereign states that make up the European Union. It is a landlocked state, surrounded by Germany, Belgium and France. Luxembourg has a population of 636,000 inhabitants over an area of ​​2,586 square kilometers.[1] The government of Luxembourg is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy, being the only sovereign Grand Duchy today. The State has a highly developed economy, enjoying one of the highest gross domestic products per capita in the world, according to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.[4] Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations and the Benelux, reflecting the political orientation in favor of economic, political and military integration. Its capital, Luxembourg, is home to numerous institutions and agencies of the European Union. Luxembourg has diverse cultures and traditions as it lies between Roman Europe and Germanic Europe. The country has three official languages: Luxembourgish, French and German. The Schengen locality, which gave its name to the Schengen area, is located in Luxembourg.

History

Ancient and Medieval Age

The territory currently occupied by the Grand Duchy was originally populated by the Treveri, a tribe of Belgian origin. They inhabited the region until the year of the Roman conquest in 53 BC. Around the 5th century, during the Middle Ages, the Franks took over this territory, which later became part of other kingdoms, such as Austrasia (in the northeast of the Frankish kingdom), Lotharingia and, finally, the Holy Roman Empire. . Although documented Luxembourgish history dates back to Roman times, it is considered to begin properly in 963 with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc (now Luxembourg Castle) by Siegfried, Count of the Ardennes. In the 14th century the Germanic emperors made it a duchy and in 1441 it was incorporated into the Burgundian state.

Modern Age

Inherited by Emperor Charles V and passed on to his son Philip II in 1555, it remained in the hands of Spain until 1714, when, by the Rastatt Treaty, it was ceded to the Austrian line of the Luxembourg dynasty.

Contemporary Age

In 1795 it was conquered by revolutionary France, but after the Napoleonic defeat and the Treaty of Paris in 1815, it remained under the administration (personal union) of the King of the Netherlands, who erected it as a Grand Duchy. The treaty also divided Luxembourg, which had already been divided in 1659 and would be divided again in 1839, leaving it under the sovereignty of Belgium and the Netherlands. Although these treaties reduced much of its territory, at the same time they increased its independence, which was confirmed after the Luxembourg Crisis in 1867. The London Treaty of 1867 declared it a neutral state, being ruled since 1890 by the descendants of Adolfo of Nassau. It was occupied by Germany during the First World War. After this, a referendum held in 1919 supported the restoration of the Nassau monarchy. In 1940 it was occupied by Hitler. After World War II, Luxembourg concluded a pact with Belgium and the Netherlands, with which it formed the Benelux (1947). In 1949 it joined NATO and in the 1950s it was one of the founding states of the European Communities. Over time, it has become one of the richest of these countries, with strong growth in the financial services sector, facilitated by political stability and European integration. From the beginning in