July 6, 2022
Mexico[note 1] ( [ˈmexiko]), officially the United Mexican States, is a sovereign country located in the southern part of North America; its capital and most populous city is Mexico City. According to the current constitution, its form of government consists of a representative, democratic, secular and federal republic, made up of 32 federal entities (31 states and the capital ). The Mexican territory has an area of 1,964,375 km², making it the thirteenth largest country in the world and the third largest in Latin America. It is bordered to the north by the United States of America along a 3,155 km border, while to the south it has a 958 km border with Guatemala and 276 km with Belize. The coasts of the country are bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, totaling 9,330 km of coastline. Mexico is the tenth most populous country in the world, with a population estimated at more than 130 million people in 2021. Most of them have Spanish as their mother tongue, which the state recognizes as a national language along with 68 the country's own indigenous languages, although around 287 linguistic varieties are spoken in the country. These figures make Mexico the country with the largest number of Spanish-speakers, as well as the seventh country with the greatest linguistic diversity in the world. The human presence in Mexico dates back to 30,000 years before the present. As a result of thousands of years of cultural development, the Mesoamerican, Aridoamerican and Oasisamerican cultures arose in the Mexican territory. The current central territory of Mexico was the main and largest setting for the Mexica people and, in part, for the Mayan people, two of the most important civilizations of pre-Columbian America. For 300 years, the entire current territory was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with its capital in Mexico City, being one of the most important entities of the Spanish Empire in America. After Spanish domination, New Spain began the struggle for its political independence in 1810, which culminated in 1821. Subsequently, for nearly a century the country was involved in a series of internal wars and foreign invasions that had repercussions in all spheres. of Mexican life. During much of the 20th century (mainly the second third) a period of great economic growth took place within the framework of a policy dominated by a single political party. According to the World Tourism Organization, Mexico is the main tourist destination in Latin America and the third most visited in the world in 2020. This is largely due to the thirty-five cultural or natural sites that are considered by the Unesco as a World Heritage Site, and in this sense it is the first on the continent. In macroeconomic terms, by gross domestic product (GDP) it is the fourteenth world economy and the eleventh by purchasing power parity (PPP); on a regional scale, it is the second largest economy in Latin America and the fourth on the continent. According to the 2020 UN Human Development Report, it has a high human development index of 0.779, and ranks 74th place in the world. Mexico is also one of the countries with the greatest diversity of climates in the world, considered one of the seventeen megadiverse countries on the planet, it is home to 10-12% of the world's biodiversity and is home to more than 12,000 endemic species .