Madrid

Article

July 6, 2022

Madrid is a municipality and a city in Spain. The town, with the historical category of town,[9] is the capital of the State[10] and of the Community of Madrid. In its municipal area, the most populous in Spain, 3,305,408 registered people live, according to the INE of 2021, which makes it the second most populous city in the European Union. Its metropolitan area, with 6,779,888 inhabitants,[11] would be the second most populous in the European Union.[12][13][14][15][note 1]​ It has a nominal GDP of €133,129 million —12% of the national GDP— and a nominal per capita GDP of €41,600 (2018), making it the 1st Spanish metropolitan area in terms of economic activity −19% of GDP. [16] It is also the first in more hotel overnight stays.[17] As the capital of Spain, it houses the headquarters of the Government of Spain and its Ministries, the Cortes Generales (Congress and Senate), the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court, as well as the official residence of the kings of Spain[18] and the President of the goverment. In economic terms, it is the fourth richest city in Europe, after London, Paris and Moscow.[19] In 2009, 50.1% of the income of the 5,000 main Spanish companies is generated by companies with headquarters in Madrid, which accounts for 31.8% of them.[20] It is home to the 4th largest stock market in Europe,[21] 2nd in the Ibero-American sphere (Latibex), and several large corporations. [22][23] It is the 8th city in the world with the largest presence of multinationals.[24][25]​ At the international level, it hosts the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), which belongs to the UN, the headquarters of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), the headquarters of the Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), the headquarters of the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture (OEI), the International Youth Organization for Ibero-America (OIJ), and the headquarters of the Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB).[26] It also houses the main international regulatory and disseminating institutions of the Spanish language: the Permanent Commission of the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language,[27] and headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the Cervantes Institute and the Urgent Spanish Foundation (Fundeu ). Madrid organizes fairs such as FITUR, Madrid Fusión, ARCO, SIMO TCI, the Motor Show and the Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week. It is an influential cultural center and has museums of international reference, among which the Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía National Art Center Museum, the Thyssen-Bornemisza and CaixaForum Madrid stand out, occupying, respectively, the 14th, 10th .º, 67th and 79th place among the most visited museums in the world.[28] In 2021, the Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro, landscape of the arts and sciences, was included in the World Heritage list. Humanity by UNESCO.[29] The origins of the city are the subject of historical revision after discoveries of Visigothic burials, which have confirmed that the later Muslim fortified settlement of Maǧrīţ (from the 9th century) had been based on a 7th-century Visigothic vicus called Matrice or matrix (' stream').[30]​[31]​ Archaeological excavations also reveal remains that are attributed to Roman Madrid, as well as remains that date back to the Carpetani or the pre-Roman period. It would not be until the 11th century when Madrid was incorporated into the Kingdom of León, after its conquest by Alfonso VI of León in 1083. It was designated as the seat of the Court by King Felipe II in 1561, becoming the first permanent capital of the monarchy. Spanish and has maintained the capital status of the country ever since, except for brief intervals of time.

Toponymy

The first documented name is the one it had in Andalusian times, مجريط Maǧrīţ (AFI [maʤriːtˁ]), which gave