Madrid (daily)

Article

December 6, 2021

Madrid was a Spanish evening newspaper that was published in Madrid between 1939 and 1971. It was a publication of Francoist ideology in its early days, later it adopted an independent editorial line. After maintaining several conflicts with the authorities, they proceeded to its closure in 1971.

History

It was founded on April 8, 1939 by the journalist Juan Pujol Martínez. [1] [2] Juan Pujol was a well-known personage who during the Second Republic had directed the right-wing-oriented evening newspaper Informaciones (owned by Juan March) and had been a deputy on the CEDA lists, opting for and obtaining one of the few licenses to open newspapers that they were granted after the end of the Spanish Civil War. Madrid began its journey on April 8, 1939 in the premises expropriated from the Heraldo de Madrid and El Liberal, and given to Pujol for rent, as thanks to his support for the "uprising." In its beginnings, it was a modest newspaper, without great aspirations. During World War II, the newspaper would have maintained a pro-Nazi position, competing directly with Informaciones. [3] In these years it would have had a circulation of 55,000 copies. [4] At the end of the 1950s it reached a circulation of 60,000 copies. However, the headquarters soon fell short due to the rapid expansion of the newspaper, and in 1947 the headquarters were moved to General Pardiñas, number 92 in a new and attractive neo-baroque style building, on the corner of Maldonado Street. In 1962, the head was acquired by the society Fomento de Activities Cultural, Económica y Sociales (FACES), made up of different currents related to the Franco regime. In 1966, Rafael Calvo Serer, a notable member of Opus Dei and a supporter of Juan de Borbón, took control of the publishing company and appointed Antonio Fontán as director of the newspaper. It is at that time when an excellent team of journalists began to work in the editorial office of the Madrid newspaper: Miguel Ángel Aguilar, José Oneto, José Vicente de Juan and Alberto Míguez. From that moment on, Madrid became a benchmark for the opening currents that began to emerge at the twilight of the dictatorship. It is the most prominent newspaper of the so-called "independent press" —together with Nuevo Diario and El Alcázar— [5] and is characterized by the expression of its own ideas that are often highly critical of the regime. They also begin timidly and subtly to demand a greater democratic opening and a better defense of individual freedoms and rights. This new editorial line caused him serious difficulties with the Government. An article by Calvo Serer, published in 1968, in which, indirectly and through a subtle comparison with Charles De Gaulle, he demanded the removal of Francisco Franco from power, led to the suspension of the newspaper for two months. The article Retire on time. Not to General de Gaulle he said the following: As government pressure increased, driven by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a business crisis was unleashed, when there was a confrontation between the director Calvo Serer and a sector of the shareholders headed by Luis Valls Taberner, at a time when, as a backdrop to the In the background, sales fell and the economic situation became delicate. [6] It was closed on November 25, 1971. [7] [8] With the excuse of alleged irregularities in the financing of the publishing company, the Government canceled the newspaper [9] and prohibited its publication. [10 ] The reasons provided by the Administration were rejected in a harsh note by twelve family attorneys to the Courts, questioning their legality and coherence, proclaiming that informational diversity was fundamental. [11] In the following weeks, frantic negotiations took place. , in which

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