July 1, 2022

Memphis was the capital of the Ancient Kingdom of Egypt and of Nome I of Lower Egypt. It was located south of the Nile River delta, in the region between Lower and Upper Egypt.

City names

Egyptian names: Ineb-hedy, Anj-tauy, Men-Nefer and Hut-ka-Ptah. Greek name: Memphis (Μεμφις).[1] Biblical name: Noph or Movh. Arabic name: Mit Rahina. In Ancient Egypt it was known as Ineb-hedy (inb ḥḏ), "White Wall". During the Middle Kingdom as Anj-tauy "Scale of the Two Lands". Also as Men Nefer (Mn-nfr) "Stable in Beauty", hellenized in Memphis and Hut-ka-Ptah (ḥu.t-k3-Ptḥ) "the temple of the ka of Ptah" from which some believe the given term would come by the Greek writers to the country, Aίγυπτoς Aiguptos, the Roman ÆGYPTVS, and the later denomination Egypt, although the Greeks never wrote the name of Ptah as Ptos, but as Ptah, being the most probable explanation for the name of Aίγυπτoς (Egyptos), the one given by Strabo, which would derive from the name that the Greeks gave to Egypt, because it was located south of the Aegean Sea, or from the name of Coptus, which in Greek was written as γυπτoς (Gyptos). White wall: Ineb-hedy, Inebu-hedy, Men-nefer, Hut-ka-Ptah.


It was founded around 3050 BC. C. by the first pharaoh of Egypt, Menes, the ruins of the city are located 19 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. The local god was Ptah. For much of Egyptian history, Memphis was the most important city in the country and the economic center of the kingdom, the undisputed capital from the 1st to the 8th dynasty, resurfacing during the reign of Ramses II and Merenptah. When other cities such as Thebes, Pi-Ramesses, Tanis or Sais held the capital status, it was still called Balance of the Two Lands, the most important center of the country. It is estimated that Memphis was the most populous city in the world until 2250 BC. C., at the time of greatest boom could have more than five hundred thousand inhabitants. Thebes succeeded Memphis, c. from 2040 BC C., as the capital during the eleventh Egyptian dynasty, being for about fifteen hundred years the capital of Ancient Egypt, except for short periods. Esarhaddon of Assyria, in 661 BC. C., and Ashurbanipal, loot the city causing its decline. The foundation of Alexandria, in 331 a. C., marked the end of the Memphite hegemony. The Ptolemies and later the Roman emperors considered Alexandria as the great capital of Egypt, and the rest of the country, including the three-thousand-year-old Memphis, fell into oblivion and poverty. It was definitely abandoned in 641, and its ruins became a quarry for materials for nearby settlements. Much of its remains were used to build the new Egyptian capital, Cairo. The ruins of the temple of Ptah have been excavated, unearthing many statues, such as those of Ramses II, exhibited in various museums.

World Heritage Site

In 1979, the whole of Memphis with its necropolis and pyramid fields (Giza, Abusir, Saqqara and Dahshur) was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, under the name of Memphis and its necropolis - Zones of the pyramids from Giza to Dahshur .

Memphis Museum (Mit Rahina)

In the area where the city of Memphis was built, the town called Mit Rahina is currently located. Containing a great sphinx, several colossal statues of Ramses II and other archaeological remains, the result of various excavations, an open-air museum and a covered room have been organized to guard them. Museum location: 29°50′58″N 31°15′16″E

Quotes from Memphis in the Bible

The ancient city of Memphis is cited in the following passages from the Bible: Isaiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Ezequiel Ezequiel hosea

See also

Temple of Apis (Memphis) Temple of Ptah (Memphis)


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