New York (state)

Article

May 23, 2022

The state of New York (in English, New York) is one of the fifty states that, together with Washington D. C., form the United States of America. Its capital is Albany and its most populous city is New York. It is located in the Northeast region of the country, Mid-Atlantic division, bordered to the north by Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River, which separate it from Canada; to the east with Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut; to the southeast with the Atlantic Ocean; to the south with New Jersey and Pennsylvania; and to the west with Lake Erie and the Niagara River, which again separate it from Canada. With 19,795,791 inhabitants} in 2015, it is the fourth most populous state (behind California, Texas and Florida) and with 137.14 inhabitants/km² it is the seventh most densely populated (behind Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, Connecticut , Rhode Island, and New Jersey). It was admitted to the Union on July 26, 1788, as state number 11. It is the largest financial and commercial center of the United States, as well as its largest industrial center. It should not be confused with the city of the same name, the City of New York (official name: City of New York, or, informally, New York City), located in the extreme south of the state. For this reason, the state is often called "New York State." New York City is not only the largest city in the state, with its 8.5 million people, nearly half the state population, but also the largest city in the United States. New York's nickname is the "Empire State." Historians believe that this nickname comes from a comment made by George Washington who once remarked that New York was the center of the American Empire. The state motto is "Excelsior," a Latin word meaning "always above," "always on top," or "higher still." New York was originally settled by the Dutch, who called the region New Netherlands (Nieuw-Nederland). They also founded a settlement on the island of Manhattan, called New Amsterdam. When England captured the state from the Dutch, the English renamed both the region and the city located in Manhattan "New York." New York was one of the thirteen British colonies that rebelled in the American Revolutionary War. A third of all the battles of the war took place in this state. After the war, New York became the 11th state to join the Union, on July 26, 1788. It became the most populous in the country around 1810, but was surpassed by California in the 1960s. , for Texas in the 1990s and for Florida in the 2010s.

History

European exploration and colonization

The region where New York State is today was inhabited by two groups of Native Americans long before the arrival of the first Europeans in the region. These groups were the Iroquois and the Algonquians, who were rivals with each other. The Iroquois were more socially organized than the Algonquians, and had a notable political and social hierarchy, as well as being more advanced militarily. The first European to explore the region where New York State is currently located was the Italian explorer and navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano, who explored on behalf of the French court, and named the region New Angoulême (Nouvelle Angoulême, in French), in honor of King Francis I of France. He reached the Hudson River around 1524. In 1609, Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring on behalf of the Netherlands, sailed up the Hudson River, officially annexing the region to the Dutch. That region would become known as the New Netherlands. The Dutch founded several trading posts in the region, and established trade relations with the indigenous Iroquois. In 1621, a group of Neer merchants