Ohio

Article

August 15, 2022

Ohio (English pronunciation: /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen), /ojáyo/) is one of the fifty states that, together with Washington D.C., form the United States of America. Its capital and most populous city is Columbus. It is located in the Midwest region of the country, Northeast Central division, bordering Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Pennsylvania to the east, and the Ohio River to the south, which separates it from West Virginia (to the southeast) and Kentucky. (to the southwest), and to the west with Indiana. With 11,689,100 inhabitants in 2019, it is the seventh most populous state —behind California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois and Pennsylvania— and with 99.37 inhabitants/km², the tenth most densely populated, behind Pennsylvania, Florida, New York, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Jersey. It was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, as the 17th state. Ohio is one of the country's major industrial centers.[3] In addition to industry, its other major sources of income are finance, coal mining (which helped make Ohio one of the nation's leading industrial powerhouses) , agriculture and tourism. The rapid industrialization of the state made various native people stand out for their inventions and pioneering.[4] Thomas Edison was born in Ohio and the Wright brothers (known worldwide for having been the first to fly in an airplane, although in this regard there are controversies) also grew here. Another world famous Ohio native is Neil Armstrong, the first person to walk on the Moon.

Toponymy

The word "Ohio" means in the Iroquois language "Great River", "Long River" or "Beautiful River",[5]​[6]​[7] used by this group of Native Americans to describe the Ohio River. Ohio's nickname is the Buckeye State (the Buckeye is a chestnut tree of the genus Aesculus). Forests made up of trees of the genus Aesculus formerly covered all of Ohio, although many of these forests have been cleared to provide raw materials for various industries, as well as to make room for agriculture.[3] Ohio also lays claim to the nickname the Mother of Modern Presidents (Mother of Modern Presidents),[7] due to the fact that seven of the presidents of the United States were born and raised in Ohio, although this title belongs, in fact, to Virginia, with a total of eight presidents. U.S. Presidents born in Ohio include Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Warren G. Harding.[6] An eighth President, William Henry Harrison, lived in Ohio when he was named president.

History

Colonization

The first European explorers to traverse the region were the French. Until 1763, the Ohio region was part of the French colony of New France, which then came under British control. With independence from the United States and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the United States came to control the region. Ohio became the first territory of the Northwest Territory to be raised to statehood, and the 17th to enter the Union, on March 1, 1803.[8] The westward expansion and construction of Numerous railroads in the state, the discovery of numerous coal deposits and a strong agricultural industry made Ohio a great industrial power in the mid-nineteenth century. Ulysses S. Grant, born in Ohio, was one of the main leaders of the Union during the American Civil War.

Until 1803

Native Americans lived in the region where the state of Ohio is today nearly two millennia before the arrival of the first European explorers. The first inhabitants of the region were a prehistoric tribe, called the Mound Builders