San Francisco (California)

Article

May 23, 2022

San Francisco, officially City and County of San Francisco (in English: City and County of San Francisco), is a city that occupies the fourth position of the most populous city in the state of California and the 13th in the United States, with a population of approximately 884,382 in 2013.[6] It is the only consolidated city-county in California, and covering an area of ​​121 km², it has the second highest population density in the country among cities that exceed the 200,000 inhabitants, after New York.[7] It is the cultural, financial and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a metropolitan agglomeration with more than seven million inhabitants.[8][9]​ It is located at the northern end of the San Francisco peninsula, with the Pacific Ocean to the west, the homonymous bay to the east, and the entrance to the bay to the north, so it is only connected to the mainland at its southern end. The city of San Francisco was founded by Spanish settlers in 1776. They built a fort on what is now the Golden Gate and founded a mission named in honor of Francisco de Asís.[10] San Francisco belonged to the Viceroyalty of New Spain. until the independence of Mexico in 1821. After the US intervention in Mexico between 1845 and 1848, the city and the rest of Alta California became US territory. In 1848, the California Gold Rush propelled the city into a period of rapid growth, growing from 1,000 to 25,000 in a year,[11] making the city the largest on the West Coast in that time. After being devastated by the 1906 earthquake and fire,[12] San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, and became the site of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later.[13] During World War II World War II, the city was the port of embarkation for thousands of soldiers leaving for the Pacific War.[14] After the war, the confluence of the returning military, mass immigration, liberal attitudes and other factors gave rise to the called the Summer of Love and the movements in favor of homosexual rights,[15] consolidating San Francisco as a liberal bastion in the United States. The city includes several islands located within the bay (the most famous being Alcatraz), as well as the Farallones, which are located 43 kilometers from the coast in the Pacific Ocean.[16] It communicates with the rest of the country and the world. through the San Francisco International Airport. San Francisco is a popular destination for international tourists, being famous for the Golden Gate Bridge, the Transamerica Pyramid building, the trams that run through its steep streets, its modernist and Victorian architecture, and for its Chinatown, popularly called Chinatown.[17] In the vicinity of San Francisco is Silicon Valley, a great center of research in technology and cybernetics. The city is also a major financial and banking center, as it is home to more than thirty financial institutions,[18] which has helped make San Francisco the eighteenth city in the world by GDP in 2008 and the ninth of the United States. United.[19] It is currently the second American city with the best quality of life, only surpassed by Honolulu.[20]

History

The first archaeological remains that show the settlement of the area date back to approximately 3000 BC. C.[21] People of the Ohlone linguistic group occupied northern California since at least the 6th century.[22] Although their territory was colonized by the Spanish beginning in the early 16th century, the Ohlone maintained relatively little contact with Europeans until 1769, when an exploration group led by Gaspar de Portolá discovered the bay of San Franc