The 13th century AD. C. (thirteenth century after Christ) or thirteenth century e. c. (13th century CE). It is called the "Century of Castles" began on January 1, 1201 and ended on December 31, 1300.
After its conquests in Asia, the Mongol Empire spread from East Asia to Eastern Europe, while the Delhi Sultanate conquered much of the Indian subcontinent. In the history of European culture this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.
Wars and politics
1202-1204: The Fourth Crusade occurs, Constantinople is sacked and the short-lived Latin Empire begins.
1204: Normandy falls into the hands of King Philip Augustus.
1205: The second battle of Adrianople takes place, between the Bulgarians and the newly created Latin Empire, where King Baudouin I is captured.
1206: Genghis Khan founds the Mongol Empire after unifying the nomadic Mughal tribes. His empire will be the most extensive in the history of humanity (on land), only being comparable to the British Empire at the beginning of the 20th century.
1212: The Almohads are defeated in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, where the Iberian kingdoms take a giant step in the Reconquest.
1213: The French and their Crusader allies defeat the Crown of Aragon at the Battle of Muret.
1214: The French King Philip Augustus defeats an Anglo-German army at the Battle of Bouvines.
1215: The English king Juan sin Tierra signs the Magna Carta.
1217-1221: The Fifth Crusade takes place, in an attempt to capture the city of Damieta, from the hands of the Ayubids, the invasion turned out to be a failure.
1221: The Serene Republic of Venice signs a commercial treaty with the Mongol Empire.
1228-1229: The Sixth Crusade takes place where Emperor Frederick II manages to take the cities of Jerusalem and Sidon among others, from the hands of the Ayubids.
1228-1250: There are clashes between the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire.
1234: Mongol conquest of North China.
1235: Foundation of the Mali Empire in West Africa, which will become one of the most prosperous and wealthy states in the region.
1237-1240: The Mongols conquer all of Kiev Rus (present-day Russia).
1238: Foundation of the Kingdom of Sukhothai in Thailand.
1241: The Mongols consecutively defeat the Hungarians and Poles.
1242: The Republic of Novgorod defeats the Teutonic knights at the Battle of Lake Peipus.
1244: The Ayubids defeat a Crusader army made up of Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonics.
1248-1254: The Seventh Crusade occurs, a crusade led by King Louis IX of France that captures Damietta but fails to take Egypt.
1249: The Portuguese Reconquest ends, when King Alfonso III of Portugal liberates the Algarve.
1261: The Byzantines, led by Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, expel the crusaders from Constantinople, ending the Latin Empire. The Eastern Roman Empire is restored, but is left in a deplorable state.
1265-1268: The Eighth Crusade occurs.
1268: The eastern crusader states fall when Antioch is conquered by the Mamluks.
1271-1272: The Ninth Crusade takes place, which again fails miserably.
1279: The Mongols finish conquering all of China after defeating the Song Dynasty.
1282: The Crown of Aragon annexes Sicily.
1291: The Mamluks take Acre, ending the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1299: Osman I founds the Ottoman Empire in Anatolia (now Turkey). The power vacuum left by the Mongols allows the Ottoman Turks to expand throughout the region.
Expansion of Islam in Indonesia.
Science and technology
1202: Leonardo of Pisa (better known as Fibonacci) publishes the Liber abaci (Book of the abacus or Book of calculations) spreading Arabic numerals in Europe.
1280: Glasses are invented in Italy.
1209: The University of C is founded