Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt

Article

July 1, 2022

The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (Turkish: Memlük Sultanlığı; Arabic: سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk‎) was a medieval kingdom that spanned Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz. It lasted from the fall of the Ayyubid dynasty in 1250 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Its capital was Cairo. Historians have traditionally divided the period of Mamluk rule into two periods, one between 1250-1382 and the other between 1382-1517. Western historians call the first period "Baharite" and the second "Burite" due to the political dominance of the regimes known by these names during the respective eras. Contemporary Muslim historians refer to the same divisions as the "Turkish"[4][5][6][7][8]​ and "Circassian" periods to emphasize the change in the ethnic origins of the most rompers. The Mamluk state reached its apogee under Turkish domination, with Arab culture, and then fell into a prolonged phase of decline under Circassian domination.[9] The ruling caste of the sultanate consisted of Mamluk, soldier-slaves, of Cuman origin. -Kipchaks (from Crimea),[10] Circassians, Abkhazians,[11] Oguzes[12] and Georgians.[13][14] Since the Mamluks were bought, their status was superior that of common slaves, who were not allowed to bear arms or perform certain tasks. The Mamluks were considered "true lords", with a higher social status than the citizens of Egypt. Although waning at the end of its existence, the sultanate was at its height the zenith of political, economic and cultural glory of the Egyptian and Levantine Middle Ages, in the Golden Age of Islam.[15]

History

The Mamluks under the Ayyubid dynasty

Under Sultan Saladin and his successors from the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt, the power of the Mamluks of Turkish origin would gradually increase. By the year 1200, Saladin's brother, Al-Adil I, managed to control the entire sultanate by defeating, killing or imprisoning his brothers and nephews. With each victory Al-Adil incorporated the defeated Mamluk retinue with his own. This process was repeated on the death of Sultan Al-Adil I, in 1218, and on the death of his son and successor, Al-Kamil, in 1238. The Ayyubids found themselves increasingly cornered by the growing power of the Mamluk emirs, who they acted semi-autonomously as regional atabegs, and soon became involved within the court of the sultanate itself. In 1240, Sultan As-Salih (son of Al-Kamil), after deposing his brother Al-Adil II, prepared to massively use Mamluks of Turkish origin from the Black Sea, after failing to use the exiled army of the Empire as mercenaries. corasmio, and before the latent threat of the Christian crusaders and the Mongols. In June 1249, the Seventh Crusade led by Louis IX of France landed in Egypt and took Damietta, while As-Salih was fighting his cousins ​​in Syria. The Egyptian troops at first withdrew, prompting the sultan to hang more than fifty emirs as deserters. When the Egyptian sultan As-Salih Ayyub died at Mansoura in November 1249, power passed to his son, Al-Muazzam Ghayath-al-Din Turan Shah (who was in northern Syria on his father's orders) and, as regent in Egypt (until the arrival of his son), his favorite wife, the Armenian Shajar Al-Durr. She this she took control of the sultanate and, with Mamluk support, launched a counterattack against the Crusaders. The troops of the Bahri Mamluk emirs Saif-ad-Din Qutuz, Fajr-ad-Din Yúsuf, Rukn-al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari and Faris-ad-Din Aqtai al-Jemdar defeated the troops of Louis IX. The French king delayed her removal from him too long and he was captured (along with his men) by the Mamluks in March 1250. Finally, L