May 19, 2022
Victoria of the United Kingdom (London, May 24, 1819-Isle of Wight, January 22, 1901) was British monarch from the death of her paternal uncle, William IV, on June 20, 1837, until his death in January 1901, while as Empress of India she was the first to hold the title from January 1, 1877 until her death. She was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and of Strathearn, fourth son of King George III. Both her father and her grandfather died in 1820, leaving Victoria under the supervision of her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German national. She inherited the throne from her at age 18, following the childless deaths of her three paternal uncles. The United Kingdom was already at that time an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign had relatively few direct political powers. Privately, she Victoria tried to influence the government and the appointment of ministers. In public, she became a national icon and the figure who embodied the model of strong values and personal morality typical of the time. She married her cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1840. Her nine children and 26 of her 42 grandchildren married into other members of royalty or the nobility of Europe, uniting them with each other, which It earned her the nickname "Grandmother of Europe". After Alberto's death in 1861, Victoria began a rigorous mourning during which she avoided appearing in public. As a result of her isolation, republicanism gained strength for some time, but in the second half of her reign, her popularity rose again. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were much celebrated. Her reign of 63 years and 216 days is the second longest in UK history, second only to that of her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II, and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific and military change in the UK and was marked by the expansion of the British Empire. Victoria was the last monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and her successor, Edward VII, belonged to the new House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, later renamed the House of Windsor by the latter's son, George V, in 1917.