Article

November 29, 2021

Ziariyan or Al-Ziari was a small Islamic family from the lands around the Caspian Sea. Ziari emirs in the fourth century AH were the emirs of Gorgan and Tabarestan and areas such as Qoms, Deylam and Gilan were often in their territory. This family came from the area inside Gilan. Mardavij, the founder of the Ziari dynasty, claimed to have traced his lineage to the pre-Islamic royal family of Gilan. He first served the Alawites of Tabarestan and then Asfar bin Shirviyeh, Sardar Gili. The purpose of the pilgrims was initially to revive the Sassanid Empire and overthrow the Abbasid Caliphate; But after Mardavij's death, it became a local government in Gorgan, Tabarestan and the surrounding areas, and after a while it became the handiwork of other neighboring governments. Gradually, the authority and influence of the Ziari emirs diminished until the last emirs of this dynasty, during the Seljuk period, were confined to mountain fortresses. He was able to gain a lot of power and invade the central regions of Iran independently. Mardavij invaded the mountains and occupied Isfahan and Khuzestan, and by choosing the title of emperor for himself, he dreamed of reviving the Sassanid empire. He was killed by his Turkish slaves in Isfahan in 323 AH. After Mardavij, those around him pledged allegiance to his brother, Vashmgir. From the very beginning of his arrival in the Emirate, Vashmigir was confronted by the Samanid and Boeing armies, and these wars continued throughout his reign. Vashmigir was severely defeated in the battle of Ishaqabad and many areas of his territory were lost, and after the rule of Ziariyan was limited to Gorgan and Tabarestan and the surrounding areas. From then on, Ziariyan became subject to neighboring governments, and Vashmigir, who was preparing for the 18th battle against the Boeans with the help of the Samanids, died. After him, Biston was able to compete with his younger brother, Qaboos, for the rule of the Ziaris, and forged close ties with the Buwayhids and the Caliph, which brought peace to his realm, and later became the model for the Ziariyans' political behavior. After Biston's death, Qaboos allied with the Samanid princes instead of the Bujans, and many battles broke out between the two fronts, until Qaboos defeated Az-Dawla Bu'i, who took refuge in the Samanid court and was away from the government for eighteen years. Finally, in 388 AH, with the death of Fakhr al-Dawla Bu'i, Qaboos succeeded in reclaiming his former lands. It was after this period that the Ziari emirs came under the protection of the Ghaznavid Turks. Qaboos

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