November 29, 2021

Scotland (English: Scotland, Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwestern Europe that covers one-third of the northern part of Great Britain. Scotland is the second largest country in the UK, smaller than the United Kingdom, but larger in size and population than Wales and Northern Ireland combined. The Independent Kingdom of Scotland decided in 1707 to form a "United Kingdom" with England through a political treaty between the Scottish and British parliaments. In this alliance, Scotland today, together with England, Wales and Northern Ireland, forms the sovereignty of Great Britain or the "United Kingdom". In addition to the mainland, Scotland also has 790 islands, including the Northern Islands and the Hebrides. Of these, 93 islands, with 2% of the country's population, are inhabited. The capital of Scotland is the historic city of Edinburgh or Edinburgh. There are significant reserves of crude oil in Scottish waters off the North Sea. Scotland and England were independent monarchies until 1707, but on May 1, 1707, the two countries formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain in a treaty. The current flag of Great Britain is a combination of the flag of Scotland (blue background, white cross) and the flag of England (white background, red cross).


Viking rule in the north of England and their settlement in Yorkshire separated the present-day Scotland from the Anglo-Saxons of the south and formed a separate Kingdom of Scotland ruled by the Celts. The Kingdom of Scotland was independent in the Middle Ages. Scotland's union with England formally began in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the throne of England and became King James I of the country. Scotland and England were still separated on paper, but the crown of both countries was accidentally left by one person. This situation continued until the enactment of the British Unity Act in 1707, which has united the English and Scottish kingdoms to this day. In this law, the two parliaments of Scotland and England decided on the basis of a political agreement to form the "United Kingdom". Prior to 1707, there was very little contact or even much less empathy between the two countries. All Scots were Presbyterian or Jacobite Jews, and that alone was enough to alienate them and four-fifths of the English population. Very few Scots to the south of S.C.

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