International transliteration alphabet


January 21, 2022

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a transliteration and transliteration system based on the Latin alphabet. The system is designed by the International Society of Phonetics as a standard alphabet to represent sounds created in a variety of languages. Students and professors in various languages, linguists, singers and actors, lexicographers, linguists and translators have been assisted in creating this system. The international transliteration alphabet is used only to indicate expressions in spoken languages ​​such as phonemes, melodies, connections between words and syllables. An extensive set of symbols is used to indicate other expressive modes, such as gnashing of teeth, spoken language, as well as for sounds made by the lip-like phenomenon. Each of the symbols of the International Transliteration Alphabet is made up of two main elements, the letters and the separators. Sometimes additional letters or separators are removed or corrected by the International Phonetic Society. As a result of recent changes in 2005, 107 letters, 52 uppercase letters, and four pronouns have been added to the international transliteration alphabet.


In 1886, a group of English and French language teachers, led by a French linguist named Paul Psy, formed what became known in 1896 as the Association phonétique internationale (French: Association phonétique internationale). The main ingredient of the association's innovative alphabet was derived from the Latin alphabet and was designed to be used in English and French, but to make the alphabet usable in other languages, the use of its symbols in various languages ​​was changed. The international transliteration alphabet has undergone many changes since its inception. After major changes in the alphabet in the 1900s and 1930s, there was a period of stability for the alphabet. The 1986 Kiel Convention on International Phonetics put an end to this stability. Later other changes took place in 2005, such as adding center vowels and deleting a few letters.



In the tables below, cells that are grayed out indicate impossible pronunciation.

Six consonants

Non-six consonants (nonsense)

Instinctive consonants


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