ایران

Article

November 28, 2021

Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in West Asia. With an area of ​​1,648,195 square kilometers, it is the second largest country in the Middle East. Iran is bordered by Armenia and Azerbaijan to the northwest, the Caspian Sea to the north, Turkmenistan to the northeast, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, the Persian Gulf and the Sea of ​​Oman to the south, and Iraq and Turkey to the west. The Middle East country has a strategic position in the Persian Gulf region, and the Strait of Hormuz to its south is a vital route for crude oil transportation. The total population of Iran's provinces exceeds 83.5 million and Tehran is the capital and most populous city of this country. Iran has a society with different ethnicities and cultures, and the dominant ethnic and cultural group of this country is derived from its Persian speakers. Besides them, there are other ethnicities, such as the densely populated Azeri and Kurdish ethnic groups. The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran declares Shiite Islam the official religion of Iran, and the majority of the people of this country are followers of this religion. The official language of this country is Persian. The land of Iran has been the host of ancient civilizations such as Ilam and Jiroft. It was first in the seventh century BC, during the reign of the Medes, that significant parts of the Iranian plateau were integrated. In the sixth century BC. AD, the Achaemenid Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great to make Iran one of the largest empires in history. In the fourth century BC. Alexander the Great ended the empire and Iran became part of the Hellenistic Empire. The emergence of the Parthian Empire in the third century BC. AD once again brought this country under the command of an Iranian empire. In the third century AD, the Sassanid Empire, another vast empire, came to power in Iran and ruled over a vast land for four centuries, and Mazdisna became its dominant religion. During this period, Iran was also involved in continuous and erosive wars with Rome, which weakened the country. In the middle of the seventh century AD, the Muslims overthrew the Sassanid Empire and popularized Islam instead of Iranian religions. From the time of the Islamic Caliphate to the thirteenth century, Iranian literary, scientific, and artistic activities flourished again, and the Iranians participated effectively in shaping the golden age of Islam. From the ninth century AD, the Iranian Middle Ages began and the first post-Islamic Iranian governments emerged. In the tenth century AD, Turkic tribes came to this country and formed governments that ruled over a large part of Iran. From the 13th century AD, the Mongol invasion of Iran took place

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