December 6, 2021

Rice is one of the most important grains and food items in the world. Half of the world's population depends on rice as a staple food. There are currently "tens of thousands of types of rice" in the world, but these fall into two general types. There are two main types of rice, Japonica rice with the scientific name of Oryza sativa japonica and Indica rice with the scientific name of sativa indica. Evidence shows that rice originated in the Pearl River Valley of China 8000-13000 years ago. Archaeological evidence has previously suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River Valley in China. Rice spread from East Asia to the southern regions and South Asia. Rice was introduced to Europe and America by European colonizers from West Asia.

Production and trade


In 2018, global rice production was 782 million tons, of which 50% belonged to China and India. Other major producers are Indonesia, Bangladesh and Vietnam. Many rice-producing countries suffer heavy losses and losses due to poor roads, poor maintenance technologies, inefficient supply chains, and the inability of farmers to bring their produce to market and small distributors. A study by the World Bank and the FAO claims that on average, about 8% to 26% of rice produced in developing countries is lost each year due to poor facilities and post-harvest problems. Some reports claim that this number is more than 40%. This loss of yield not only reduces global food security, but research shows that these farmers in developing countries such as China, India and other countries lost $ 89 billion due to poor transportation and post-harvest problems. They say it can be prevented.


Rice is a plant that has early cultivars (growth period 130 to 145 days), medium growth (150 to 160 days) and late cultivars (170 to 180 days). To better understand the rice plant, we will mention its different parts such as roots, stems, leaves, etc.


Rice roots are shallow and diffuse and penetrate to a maximum depth of 20 to 25 cm in the soil. In this plant, in addition to the embryonic roots, roots also arise from the nodes. The higher the growth of the leaves, the higher the growth of the roots, and as a result, it can be said that with the increase in the number of tillers, the number of leaves increases and as a result, the growth of the roots also increases. When the flowers open and the rice clusters, the roots grow to their maximum value

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