November 29, 2021

Ancient Gorgan, which in Greek sources was called Hyrcania, in ancient Persian Varkaneh, in Arabic Jorjan and in Tabari Vergan, was an ancient land in the southeastern region of the Caspian Sea, and more or less corresponds to modern Golestan province. Jorjan has been mentioned both as a land and as a city and its boundaries vary in historical periods. Sometimes it is introduced as a part of Tabarestan province and sometimes it is considered as a part of it. The capital of the province was located in the city of Gonbad Kavous, which was probably destroyed by attacks by Turkic tribes. Later, on 12 Azar 1309, by the order of Reza Shah Pahlavi, the former Astarabad district was renamed Gorgan city, which caused disturbances in historiography. Hyrcanian or Vercane; Pre-Islamic Hyrkania in the southeast of the Caspian Sea, which is mentioned in history by various names such as Varkaneh, Hyrkania, Tabarestan and Gorgan, was one of the important and key lands in the Achaemenid period. According to Mohammad Taqi Imanpour and Tahmours Mehrabi, contemporary historians, Hyrkania, Mazandaran was also referred to as the house of evil demons, which is often referred to in the Avesta. Conquered by Cyrus the Great. The name of Gorgan is mentioned in the inscription of Darius in Biston in the form of Varkana or Varkana, and in Vandidad in the form of Varkana. The Persian form of Gorgan is derived from its European, Hyrkani or Hyrkania or Hyrkania. Hyrcania was part of the Medes in the early Achaemenid Empire and later became part of the Achaemenid Empire. Greek geographers used the term Hyrcanian Sea instead of the Caspian Sea, which Herodotus coined, after the Alexandrian period of prosperity. In the early Parthian period, the Hyrcanians became an independent ethnic group, so that Mehrdad I of the Parthians rushed to the Hyrcanians after the Civil War. Probably in 58 AD, the successors of Goodarz Parthian (son of Gio) ruled in Hyrkani and their territory extended from the west to Qoms (Qoms) and from the south to the Scythian region of Sistan. During the Parthian period, Hyrcanus broke away from Parthia and gained independence, sending ambassadors to the Roman emperor, and the first Blash inevitably recognized Hyrcanian independence. Ardeshir Babakan, the first Sassanid king, entered Varkaneh province to go to Balkh. Varkaneh at this time was one of the defensive positions of the Iranians against the invasion of savage tribes. Several Sassanid kings were there

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