Linguistic family


January 21, 2022

A language family is a group of languages ​​derived from a common ancestor. Languages ​​in a common family must share a considerable number of phonological, morphological, and grammatical features. In linguistics, the concept and subject of linguistic families originate from the fact that, like all objects, phenomena, and complex processes, natural human languages ​​have the same attributes, manifestations. , And show many effects of being alive and being alive. For example, languages, like animals, have families and relatives. According to ethnologists, 7,117 living human languages ​​are divided into 142 language families.


Linguistic families can be divided into smaller lineage units, commonly referred to as family branches, because the history of a language family is often represented as a tree diagram. A single family is inclusive; All members are rooted in a common ancestor, and all approved descendants of that ancestor are part of the family.

dialect chain

Some tied language families, and many branches within larger families, form a dialect chain in which there are no clear boundaries for identifying, defining, or counting separate languages ​​within the family. However, when the differences between the speeches of different regions at the end of the continuum are such that there is no mutual understanding between them, what happens in Arabic, the dialect chain of a single language is not seen significantly.

Single family language

Most languages ​​of the world are related to other languages. Languages ​​that have no known relatives (or family relationships are only suggested for them) are called single family languages. They are essentially language families consisting of a single language. Today there are an estimated 129 single-family languages. The Basque language is an example of such a language. In general, it is assumed that single-family languages ​​are related or have been related at some point in their history, but the time depth for language comparisons to retrieve them is too great. There is also a single family language in the branches of a codified language family, such as Albanian and Armenian within Indo-European. The meaning of the word "single family" in such cases is usually clarified with an adjective. For example, the Albanian and Armenian may be referred to as the "Hindu family

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