Chemical reactor

Article

January 20, 2022

A chemical reactor is a device in which chemical reactions take place, during which the raw materials are converted into the required products. Design and operation of chemical reactors is one of the most important tasks of chemical industry professionals, including chemical engineers. The design of a chemical reactor requires a proper understanding of the chemical reaction performed in the reactor, and for this purpose it is necessary to master sciences such as chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics and mathematics. Chemical reactors can be manufactured on a large scale for industrial use or on a small scale for laboratory and research applications. Economic aspects also affect the optimal design of the reactor. These include spending less to design a more efficient and smaller reactor, spending less energy producing more product, bringing raw materials to the highest conversion rate, and increasing process efficiency. In designing reactors, many parameters such as: residence time ( τ {\ displaystyle \ tau} ), Volume (V), temperature (T), pressure (P), concentration of chemical species (C1, C2, C3, ..., Cn), heat transfer coefficient (U, h), reaction rate (r) and… Are involved. Chemical reactors are designed based on the type of reaction and applications in different forms and with special details that increase their complexity. However, reactors can be classified into several large and general categories, including continuous and discontinuous reactors, bed or fixed bed reactors, tubular and reservoir reactors, or homogeneous and inhomogeneous reactors. The behavior of reactors is usually represented by equations called the reactor equation, which are different for different types of reactors and express the mathematical relationship between the effective parameters in the reactor. Concepts of chemical reactions A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances are converted to other substances. Raw materials are less economically valuable materials, and instead products are more valuable materials. Understanding the kinetics and reaction mechanism is one of the important points in designing industrial reactors. The equation of velocity, equilibrium or non-equilibrium, the phase of the material involved in the reaction (solid, liquid, gas), whether it is heat or hot, as well as the effect of the catalyst on the reaction, are among the most important points in reactor design.

Reaction kinetics

The kinetics of a chemical reaction is the study of the mechanism by which a chemical reaction takes place. The science of chemical kinetics deals entirely with how a reaction is performed, the side reactions, the intermediates produced, and many details of a reaction.

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