December 7, 2021
Persian or Persian is a Western Iranian language from the Iranian subgroup of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family, which is mostly spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Persian is a multifocal language and the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and Afghanistan. In Iran and Afghanistan, the language is written in the Persian alphabet, which is derived from the Arabic script, and in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, in the Tajik alphabet, which is derived from the Cyrillic alphabet. The Persian language in Afghanistan is officially called Dari (since 1343) and in Tajikistan Tajik (from the Soviet period). Persian comes from the older Middle Persian (or Pahlavi) language, which also originated in ancient Persian. These two languages originate from the ancient region of Pars (modern-day Fars province in southern Iran). Ancient Persian was the official language of the Achaemenid Empire, and its descendants, Middle Persian, became the official and religious language of the Sassanid Empire, which during this period spread widely to other parts of Iran; In Khorasan, it replaced the Parthian and Balkhi languages, and large parts of the Kharazmi-speaking and Sogdian-speaking languages in Khorazm and Farrood also became Persian-speaking. A dialect of Middle Persian, which became known as Dari Persian over time, emerged as the standard written dialect in Khorasan after Islam and spread throughout Iran. Persian has historically been the cultural and esteemed language of numerous empires in Western, Central and South Asia. This language has had great influences on its neighboring languages, including other Iranian languages, Turkish (especially Uzbek and Azerbaijani), Armenian, Georgian and Indo-Aryan (especially Urdu). Persian has also influenced and has been influenced by Arabic. It has been the official language of the bureaucracy even among non-native speakers, such as the Ottoman Turks in the Ottoman Empire or the Pashtuns in Afghanistan. In 1872, at a meeting of European writers and linguists in Berlin, Greek, Persian, Latin, and Sanskrit were chosen as the world's classical languages. By definition, a classical language is considered to be ancient and rich in literature, and has undergone little change in the last millennium of its life. Persian is one of the richest and richest languages in the world in terms of literary works, number and variety of words, as well as proverbs. Among the most well-known works of Persian literature are Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Rumi's works, and quatrains.