Catalan, Catalan or Catalan (Catalan: Català) is a Romance language that is the official language of Andorra and one of the official languages of the three autonomous regions of Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands in northern Spain. The language is also official in the Italian city of Allegro. Catalan is also spoken in the Pyrenees-Oriental department of France and the two regions of La Français in Aragon and Carche in Murcia in eastern Spain.
The total number of Catalan speakers is estimated at more than 10 million. Catalan originated in medieval Latin from the eastern Pyrenees. The language witnessed a literary revival in the nineteenth century, which reached its peak in the early 1900s. The Catalan-speaking regions of the lands are called Països Catalans. Catalan has two types of criteria. One is based on Central Catalan (Barcelona dialect) and is regulated by the Catalan Research Organization in Catalonia, and the other is based on the Valencian dialect (Valencia dialect) and is organized by the Valencian Language Academy.
The word Catalan is derived from the word Catalonia, the name of the region where the language is spoken. Some linguists consider Catalunya to be derived from the Latin root Gathia Launia, which comes from the word Gatia or Gatia, meaning "land of the Goths". Western is in the form of Catalan. In the Autonomous Region of Valencia and Karche, this language is called Valencian (valencià); Thus, although the name "Valencian" is often used to refer to the dialects of Valencia and Karche, it is used by the Valencians as a name for the whole language and synonymously with Catalan.
In the ninth century, Catalan developed on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyrenees, as well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Taraconensis, south of popular Latin. From the eighth century onwards, the Catalans expanded their territory south and west by repelling Muslims and spreading their language in those areas. With the separation of Barcelona from the Carolingian Empire in 988, the spread of the Catalan language intensified. In the 11th century, the Latin dialects of these areas began to show elements of Catalan. Ancient Catalonia had many similarities with Gallo-Rome and resulted from the divergence of ancient Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries.