December 6, 2021
Zaydiyya is one of the Shiite sects named after Zayd ibn Ali. Unlike the Twelve Imams, the Zaydis consider Zayd ibn Ali to be the fifth Imam in place of his brother, Imam Muhammad Baqir, and in the Imamate of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hassan ibn Ali, Hussein ibn Ali, and Ali ibn Hussein agree with other Shiites. In modern times, Yemen is the most important Zaydi settlement, with about 40% of its population being Shiites. The world's Zaydi population is 11 million. The Zaydi school of jurisprudence is close to the Hanafi religion and has similarities with the Jafari religion. They are close to the Mu'tazilites in theology and theology. One of the important differences between the Zaydis and the Twelve Imams is that they do not believe in the infallibility of the Imams and they believe that each of the sons of Hassan and Hussein can reach the position of Imamate. Therefore, Imamate is not considered hereditary. They also believe that the Imam must be able to fight and defend, so they do not accept the Imamate of the child and the absent Mahdi. The most important condition of Imamate is considered to be personal effort and they accept the existence of more than one Imam at one time and the absence of Imam at another time. Sheikh Mofid has said about Zaydiyya: "To the Imamate of any Fatimid who invites himself and is apparently just, knowledgeable and courageous, and swears allegiance to him for drawing the sword for jihad." In the book Al-Tahf Sharh al-Zulf, after counting Muhammad ibn Abdullah, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hassan ibn Ali, Hussein ibn Ali, Ali ibn Hussein and Zayd ibn Ali, up to more than 110 Imams for Zaydiyyah have been counted. The Zaydis came to power twice in history, one in Tabarestan, Diliman, and Gilan, from about 250 AH, when the great da'i established the Alawite rule of Tabarestan, around 520 AH, and the other in Yemen, where Yahya ibn Husayn circa 298 AH. And until modern times competed with the Egyptian and Ottoman caliphs for political power in the region.